內業 Nèiyè (Inner Cultivation) Part 4 of 26

IV

034   01   皙皙乎如在於側  xī xī hū rú zài yú cè
035   02   忽忽乎如將不得  hū hū hū rú jiāng bù dé
036   03   渺渺乎如窮無極  miăo miăo hū rú qióng wú jí

037   04   此稽不遠  cĭ jī bù yuàn
038   05   日用其德  rì yòng qí dé
039   06   夫道所以充形  fú dào suŏ yĭ chōng xíng
040   07   而人不能固  ér rén bù néng gù
041   08   其往不復  qí wăng bù fù
042   09   其來不舍  qí lái bù shĕ

043   10   寂乎莫聞其音  jì hū mò wén qí yīn
044   11   卒乎乃在於心  cù hū năi zài yú xīn
045   12   冥冥乎不見其形 míng míng hū bù jiàn qí xíng
046   13   淫淫乎與我俱生 yín yín hū yú wŏ jù shēng

047   14   不見其形  bù jiàn qí xíng
048   15   不聞其聲  bù wén qí shēng
049   16   而序其成  ér xù qí chéng
050   17   謂之道  wèi zhī dào

034 01 皙皙乎如在於側 xī xī hū rú zài yú cè
0156 皙 xī white
0157 皙 xī white
0158 乎 hū interrogative or exclamatory final particle
0159 如 rú follow, defer to, comply with, according to, in light of; this, such a/an; in this way, so, such as; if
0160 在 zài be located at, situated; rest in, reside in, lie in; consist in depend on; be present; exist, live; at, in, on
0161 於   yú   in, at, on, to, from, with regard to; than
0162 側 cè to one side, side(ways); incline(d), oblique

035 02 忽忽乎如將不得 hū hū hū rú jiàng bù dé
0163 忽 hū swift(ly), quick(ly); sudden(ly), all at once, abrupt(ly); infinitesimal, imperceptible, inconceivably small
0164 忽 hū swift(ly), quick(ly); sudden(ly), all at once, abrupt(ly); infinitesimal, imperceptible, inconceivably small
0165 乎 hū interrogative or exclamatory final particle
0166 如 rú follow, defer to, comply with, according to, in light of; this, such a/an; in this way, so, such as; if
0167 將 jiāng take in hand, take hold of; use, employ; apply; take along, bring along
0168 不 bù generic pre-verbal negative, not; negative prefix
0169 得 dé obtain, get, gain, attain(ment), acquire(ment); have control of, possess

036 03 渺渺乎如窮無極 miăo miăo hū rú qióng wú jí
0170 渺 miăo boundlessly spreading, flooding afar, cresting and coursing, infinite overflow; (reduplicated) far and even farther, dimly in the distance
0171 渺 miăo boundlessly spreading, flooding afar, cresting and coursing, infinite overflow; (reduplicated) far and even farther, dimly in the distance
0172 乎 hū interrogative or exclamatory final particle
0173 如 rú follow, defer to, comply with, according to, in light of; this, such a/an; in this way, so, such as; if
0174 窮 qióng go to the end of; come to the last point; end in, end with; endless
0175 無 wú to be without or lack obj., to have nothing, nought; 無極 wú jí infinite, immeasurable; paramount; everlasting, unbounded
0176 極 jí ridgepole; standard, principle; high-point, summit, zenith; pinnacle; apogee, apex; culmen, culmination, culminate; extremity, supreme; most; best, utmost

037 04 此稽不遠 cĭ jī bù yuăn
0177 此 cĭ this, these, here
0178 稽 jī delay, retard; arrive at, reach, come to; examine, scrutinise, study close
0179 不 bù no, not, un-, negative prefix
0180 遠 yuăn distant, far, long off, in space or time; far-reaching, extend far or deeply in influence or effect

038 05 日用其德 rì yòng qí dé
0181 日 rì the sun; solar; a day, daytime; each day, daily 日用 rì yòng of everyday use, daily expenses
0182 用 yòng use, employ, make use of; apply, ply; use up, consume, run through
0183 其 qí his, her, its, their, that, such, it (refers to something preceding it)
0184 德 dé innate (inner) power, potency, efficacy; sometimes thought of as projection of the 道 Dao (Way) in the sensible world; traditionally translated as ‘virtue,’ but having no religious overtones—Kroll, 2015.

039 06 夫道所以充形 fú dào suŏ yĭ chōng xíng
0185 夫 fú (1) sentence-initial modifier indicating that the substance of the sentence applies to any individual case: in any particular case; or (2) demonstrative pronoun
0186 道 dào (1) way that leads somewhere, road, rout; (2) the Way; as image suggesting how things actually exist, fundamental reality, a constant Way in which the diverse ways of living and relating are essentially balanced and whole.—Kroll, 2015
0187 所 suŏ place, spot, site, location; 所以 suŏ yĭ that which is used, wherewithal, means
0188 以 yĭ therefore, thereby, by means of, consider as, in order to, to use, according to, so as to, by, with, because
0189 充 chōng fill, filled; whole, complete, abundant; fit in, fit with, accord with
0190 形 xíng outward form, appearance, shape; structure, contour, outline

040 07 而人不能固 ér rén bù néng gù
0191 而 ér verbal-phrase conjunction, occurs between two verbal-phrases subordinating the former to the latter: and, and then, and yet, yet (not), but, but (not), as well as; indicates causal relation; indicates change of state; indicates contrast
0192 人 rén person, human being, man, mankind, others, the other one(s)
0193 不 bù generic pre-verbal negative, not; negative prefix
0194 能 néng capacity, (cap)ability; faculty, prowess; capable of, able to
0195 固 gù fastness, secure place, stronghold; solid; firm, secure, steadfast; firmly, certainly, definitely, in fact

041 08 其往不復 qí wăng bù fù
0196 其 qí his, her, its, their, that, such, it (refers to something preceding it)
0197 往 wăng go, go toward; be gone, bygone, past, former(ly)
0198 不 bù generic pre-verbal negative, not; negative prefix
0199 復 fù go back over the same road, retrace; return; resume, restart; return to earlier state, restore, renew

042 09 其來不舍 qí lái bù shĕ
0200 其 qí his, her, its, their, that, such, it (refers to something preceding it)
0201 來 lái come, come to, arrive; the future, what is coming
0202 不 bù generic pre-verbal negative, not; negative prefix
0203 舍 shè guest-house; stay over at a guest-house; reside, dwell; rest, repose

043 10 寂乎莫聞其音 jì hù mò wén qí yīn
0204 寂 jì soundless, silent, hushed; tranquil; solitude, solitary
0205 乎 hū interrogative or exclamatory final particle
0206 莫 mò in no case, in no instance; none, nothing, no one
0207 聞 wén to hear; make heard, make known, inform; rumour, hearsay
0208 其 qí his, her, its, their, that, such, it (refers to something preceding it)
0209 音 yīn sound, tone; voice, words

044 11 卒乎乃在於心 cù hū năi zài yú xīn
0210 卒 cù — suddenly; zú — pass away; accomplish, complete; in the end, finally
0211 乎 hū interrogative or exclamatory final particle
0212 乃 năi then, only then; with that, given that, thereupon; so, thus
0213 在 zài be located at, situated; rest in, reside in, lie in; consist in depend on; be present; exist, live; at, in, on
0214 於 yú in, at, on, to, from, with regard to; than
0215 心 xīn the heart, as the centre of intellectual and emotional activity

045 12 冥冥乎不見其形 míng míng hū bù jiàn qí xíng
0216 冥 míng dark-cast light; darkling, darksome; reduplicated: as dark as can be
0217 冥 míng dark-cast light; darkling, darksome; reduplicated: as dark as can be
0218 乎 hū interrogative or exclamatory final particle
0219 不 bù generic pre-verbal negative, not; negative prefix
0220 見 jiàn to see, look at; perceive, perception; understand(ing)
0222 其 qí his, her, its, their, that, such, it (refers to something preceding it)
0222 形 xíng outward form, appearance, shape; structure, contour, outline

046 13 淫淫乎與我俱生 yín yín hū yú wŏ jù shēng
0223 淫 yín excessive, prodigal, unrestrained; unregulated
0224 淫 yín excessive, prodigal, unrestrained; unregulated
0225 乎 hū interrogative or exclamatory final particle
0226 與 yú sentence-final interrogative; yù—participate, take part with, join in; yŭ—give to, grant to, accord to, prove for, assist; be associated with
0227 我 wŏ I, me, we, our(s), us, my own, it is I who…
0228 俱 jù altogether, in all; completely, the whole of; generally; together with, in common; comprehend, understand
0229 生 shēng life; live, be alive, exist; emerge, come forth, appear; to grow, develop

047 14 不見其形 bù jiàn qí xíng
0230 不 bù generic pre-verbal negative, not; negative prefix
0231 見 jiàn to see, look at; perceive, perception; understand(ing)
0232 其 qí his, her, its, their, that, such, it (refers to something preceding it)
0233 形 xíng outward form, appearance, shape; structure, contour, outline

048 15 不聞其聲 bù wén qí shēng
0234 不 bù generic pre-verbal negative, not; negative prefix
0235 聞 wén to hear; make heard, make known, inform; rumour, hearsay
0236 其 qí his, her, its, their, that, such, it (refers to something preceding it)
0237 聲 shēng sound, noise; voice

049 16 而序其成 ér xù qí chéng
0238 而 ér verbal-phrase conjunction, occurs between two verbal-phrases subordinating the former to the latter: and, and then, and yet, yet (not), but, but (not), as well as; indicates causal relation; indicates change of state; indicates contrast
0239 序 xù sequence, progress(ion), succession, e.g. sequence of the seasons; order; put in order; arrangement; arrange in sequence; preface, prolegomenon
0240 其 qí his, her, its, their, that, such, it (refers to something preceding it)
0241 成 chéng complete, accomplish, achieve; effect(ive); fulfil, realise; whole(ness), make whole, to form, shape; become, develop (to)

050 17 謂之道 wèi zhī dào
0242 謂 wèi to speak, to say, to name, to designate, to tell, to call, be called, meaning, sense
0243 之 zhī to go; pronouns: this, that, these, those, him, her, it, them; demonstrative adjectives: this, that, these, those; marker of noun-phrase modification; possessive marker; marker of sentential nominalisation
0244 道 dào (1) way that leads somewhere, road, rout; (2) the Way; as image suggesting how things actually exist, fundamental reality, a constant Way in which the diverse ways of living and relating are essentially balanced and whole.—Kroll, 2015

TRANSLATIONS

Four

Clear! — as though right by your side.
Vague! — as though it will not be attained.
Indescribable! — as though beyond the limitless.

The test of this is not far off:
Daily we make use of its inner power.
The Way is what infuses the body,
Yet people are unable to fix it in place.
It goes forth but does not return,
It comes back but does not stay.

Silent! — none can hear its sound.
Suddenly stopping! — it abides within the mind.
Obscure! — we do not see its form.
Surging forth! — it arises with us.

We do not see its form,
We do not hear its sound,
Yet we can perceive an order to its accomplishments.
We call it “the Way.”

(Translated by Harold D. Roth, 1999)

Four

So gleaming! As though just beside.

So dim! As though ungraspable.

So remote! As though exhausting the far limit.

Its basis is near at hand; daily we draw its force of virtue.
By means of the Dao forms are made full,
yet men are not able to cleave firmly to it.
Once gone it may not return,
Once come it may not remain.


So silent! None hears its sound.
So compact! It resides in the heart.
So dark! Invisible of form.
So overflowing! It is born along with me.

Its form unseen,
Its sound unheard,
Yet its doings perfectly ordered.
Such we call: the Dao.

(Translated by Robert Eno, 2005)

Four

Is it very bright? As though located right by your side.
Is it very easy to overlook? As though it will never be attained.

Is it very remote and indistinct? As though utterly without boundaries.

To examine this, you need not go far:
You use De daily.
Now: Dao is the reason that the form [of the heart/mind] is full!
But people cannot be strong enough to keep it –
It goes and does not return,
It arrives but does not dwell.

Is it silent? There is no one who can hear its sound.
Is it close? It is residing in the heart/mind.
Is it very dim and obscure? You cannot see its form.
Is it very prolific? It gives us all life.

You cannot see its form,
You cannot hear its voice,
Yet there is an order to its accomplishments.
We call it Dao.

(Translated by Bruce R. Linnell, 2011)

Four

At rest! As though right at your side;
Fleeting! Trying to snatch it, it is not obtained;
Vast and Distant! It is void of all limits.

This investigation does not take place far off
But in the daily application of this Virtue.
It is Dao which fills the body,
Yet people are unable to secure it.
It leaves without returning;
It arrives without remaining.

Strategic! No one hears its voice;
Sudden! Right away it is within your heart-mind;
Dark and obscured! Its form cannot be seen;
Immense and overflowing! It rises within all of us.

We do not see its form,
We do not hear its voice,
Yet its sequence of development
We call “Dao”.

(Translated by Dan G. Reid, 2018)

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內業 Nèiyè (Inner Cultivation) All Characters of Parts 1-3 in ABC order and Digraphs

Total number of characters in parts 01-03 to read is 155, different characters are 90 (27+38+25).

A

安 ān firmly in place; stable, secure; safe; unworried, settled, calm

B

彼 bĭ that, those, the other, there
畢 bì finish, bring to an end; all of, to the last one; completely
必 bì adv necessarily, certainly; inevitably, invariably
不 bù generic pre-verbal negative, not; negative prefix; 不可 bù kĕ cannot, should not, must not

C

藏 cáng store up, reserve, hoard; keep safe; hide away, secrete
此 cĭ this, these, here
成 chéng complete, accomplish, achieve; effect(ive); fulfil, realise; whole(ness), make whole, to form, shape; become, develop (to)
充 chōng fill, filled; whole, complete, abundant; fit in, fit with, accord with
出 chū go or come out (from), come or go forth; issue (from), emerge(nt); go or reach beyond; exceed, surpass

D

德 dé innate (inner) power, potency, efficacy; sometimes thought of as projection of the 道 Dao (Way) in the sensible world; traditionally translated as ‘virtue,’ but having no religious overtones—Kroll, 2015.
得 dé obtain, get, gain, attain(ment), acquire(ment); have control of, possess
登 dēng climb, ascend, rise; (sur)mount
地 dì earth, soil, as land

E

而 ér verbal-phrase conjunction, occurs between two verbal-phrases subordinating the former to the latter: and, and then, and yet, yet (not), but, but (not), as well as; indicates causal relation; indicates change of state; indicates contrast

F

凡 fán in general, overall, in every case of, whenever, whatever, whoever, whichever, all of
煩 fán vex(atious), irk(some), annoy(ance), irritate, peeve; trouble(some), bother(some); confusingly or unnecessarily many, overmuch; overcomplicated, loaded with trivia
反 făn turn over, invert, turn upward; turn back, reverse, go back, return, turn round; contrary, opposite, oppose; look inside, introspection

G

杲 găo glimmer, glint, break into light, like the just-rising sun; brightening; ascend in the distance
穀 gŭ grain, cereal, common food crops
故 gù reason, cause, purpose; therefore, assuredly, affirmedly, certainly, surely
鬼 guĭ returning spirit of the dead, revenant, ghost, specter; often associated with the carnal-soul (魄 pò) that is tied to the earth; 鬼神 guĭ shén gods and demons (Roth translates it like ‘ghostly and numinous’, others follow ‘ghosts and spirits’)

H

海 hăi sea, ocean; marine, maritime
和 hé harmony, bring into harmony; harmonious, of sound; in harmony with, accordant; euphonious
乎 hū interrogative or exclamatory final particle
呼 hū to call, to cry, to shout, to breath out, to exhale, breath sigh

J

濟 jì cross a river; arrive at a goal, succeed, achieve(ment); help, aid, assist
間 jiān NB This graph a medieval development of 閒 xián, interstice of space, interval, space between, in between, among, in the midst of
精 jīng essence; purest, most highly concentrated element; germinal essence, life-germ contained in the Dao; the energy that nourishes the human body and is esp. attached to sexuality (semen, menstrual fluid); seminal; vital; seed(ling)
敬 jìng respect(ful), revere(nce), regard with honor; serious; solemn, grave; reflective, somber

K

可 kĕ possible, permissible, feasible; allow(able), admit; may, can

L

樂 lè merry, blithe; delighted; gleeful; (en)joy(ment); take pleasure in, delight in
力 lì strength, power(ful); force(ful); ability, potency; vigour(ous), strenuous
利 lì profit(able), benefit; gain(ful); successful, favourable; swift, rapid
列 liè to array, arrange in ranks or sequence; sign up, align(meant); set out; enlist(meant). 列星 liè xīng star alignment (in astrology)
流 liú flow, drift, course, glide, run, stream; circulate, distribute, spread
亂 luàn disorder(ly), disarray; chaos; trouble(d), confuse(d); rebel, revolt

 

N

乃 năi then, only then; with that, given that, thereupon; so, thus
淖 nào temperate, gentle; be in accord
能 néng capacity, (cap)ability; faculty, prowess; capable of, able to
寧 níng peaceful, tranquil, irenic; pacify, calm
怒 nù angry, infuriated, furious; wrath(ful), wroth; tense, intense

Q

其 qí his, her, their, its, one’s; the, this, that, such, it (refers to something preceding it)
齊 qí ready, complete; altogether; act in concert; bring into line; compose, arrange, array
屺   qǐ hill or mountain denuded of vegetation, bare mound
氣 qì vital breath, pneuma, energising breath, life-force, material force. The force characterized by a blending of yin and yang, that animates each living creature and also runs through the inanimate universe; regarded as hybrid or dual in nature, described as neither just matter nor just energy, or rather as matter-energy; 氣 qì is the basic constituent element of the universe—Kroll, 2015.
情 qíng the actual situation; properties; matters; circumstance(s)
去 qù depart (from), go away (from), leave, go off

 

R

人 rén person, human being, man, mankind, others, the other one(s)
如 rú follow, defer to, comply with, according to, in light of; this, such a/an; in this way, so, such as; if
入 rù enter, pass into, go in

S

上 shàng on top, on high, above, higher, up(ward)
神 shén spirit(ual), god(ly), divine, deity; sacred, etherial, holy; natural order, law of nature
生 shēng life; live, be alive, exist; emerge, come forth, appear; to grow, develop
聲 shēng sound, noise; voice
聖 shèng possessing wisdom, judgment, and moral excellence; profoundly wise and virtuous; sage(ly), sagacious. 聖人 shèng rén saint, sage
失 shī lose, forfeit, lacking in, not careful about, neglectful of; wrongly done; error, slip
是 shì this, that, these, those; he, they, any, any such; affirm, assert, prove out, prove to be so; true, right; what is this way, as it is supposed to be; 是故 shì gù therefore, so, and so, for this reason, on this account
守 shŏu keep safe, safeguard; to ward, keep ward; hold to, keep to; abide by, observe
所 suŏ place, spot, site, location; 所以 suŏyĭ that which is used, wherewithal, means

T

天   tiān   the sky, the heavens, celestial; 天地 tiān dì heaven and earth, world

W

萬 wàn ten thousand, myriad; countless, innumerable; 萬物 wàn wù the myriad phenomena (of the world); all living things
為 wéi do; make, contrive; effect; carry out
謂   wèi   to speak, to say, to name, to designate, to tell, to call, be called, meaning, sense
五 wŭ numeral five; fifth. 五穀 wŭ gŭ five crops (millet, sesame, soya beans, barley or wheat, rice or other variants), all crops, all grains
勿 wù prohibitive negative: do not
物 wù things; matters, material things; phenomena; living beings

X

喜 xĭ delight in, joy(ful), happiness; light-hearted(ness), glad(ness), mirth(ful)
下 xià below, low(er), under, at the bottom; down(ward), go down, decline, to go down, fall
心 xīn the heart, as the centre of intellectual and emotional activity
星 xīng star; astral, star-like
形 xíng outward form, appearance, shape; structure, contour, outline
胸 xiōng breast, chest, as seat of affections; inner mind; 胸中 xiōng zhōng one’s mind

Y

杳 yăo indistinct, obscure; vague, blurred; impenetrable, unfathomable
也 yĕ classical final particle of strong affirmation or identity; marking sentence-initial noun-phrases as topics; final particle in verbal sentences marking continuative aspect
以 yĭ to use, take (up); use as a tool, instrument, or means
意 yì thought, idea; mentation; intent(ion), purpose
迎 yíng receive, accept; welcome, greet; acquiesce to, comply with
盈 yíng plentitude, plenteous; full, abundant, replete; full to excess, overfull
憂 yōu anxious, concerned over; fretful; trouble by, burdened with care; grief
於   yú   in, at, on, to, from, with regard to; than
欲 yù want(s), desire(s); craving; desiderate
淵 yuān vortex, gyre; whirlpool, maelstrom; abyss, seemingly bottomless gulf; deep, profound; unplumbable, immeasurable

Z

在 zài be located at, situated; rest in, reside in, lie in; consist in depend on; be present; exist, live; at, in, on
則 zé standard, norm, precept; rule, example; usual, follow a law; VB-phrase conjunction, occurs between two VB-phrases subordinating the former to the latter, specifically with the meaning ‘if VB-phrase 1, then VB-phrase 2’
之 zhī to go; pronouns: this, that, these, those, him, her, it, them; demonstrative adjectives: this, that, these, those; marker of noun-phrase modification; possessive marker; marker of sentential nominalisation
止 zhĭ stop, halt, end; cease, cessation; only, merely, just
智 zhì wisdom, knowledge; cognition, intelligence; sentence; insight, gnosis
中 zhōng in, inner, innermost, inside, among; centre, central, middle, in the midst of
自 zì for oneself, of oneself, personally; instinctively, naturally, freely, spontaneously
崒   zú jut up; rearing ruggedly

 

DIGRAPHS CHAPTER 01

五穀 wŭ gŭ five crops (millet, sesame, soya beans, barley or wheat, rice or other variants), all crops, all grains
列星 liè xīng star alignment (in astrology)
天地 tiān dì heaven and earth, world
鬼神 guĭ shén gods and demons (Roth translates it like ‘ghostly and numinous’, others follow ‘ghosts and spirits’)
聖人 shèng rén saint, sage
胸中 xiōng zhōng one’s mind

DIGRAPHS CHAPTER 02

不可 bù kĕ cannot, should not, must not
是故 shì gù therefore, so, and so, for this reason, on this account
萬物 wàn wù the myriad phenomena (of the world); all living things

DIGRAPHS CHAPTER 03

所以 suŏ yĭ that which is used, wherewithal, means

內業 Nèiyè (Inner Cultivation) Part 3 of 26

III

023   01   凡心之 形 fán xīn zhī xíng
024   02   自充自盈  zì chōng zì yíng
025   03   自生自成  zì shēng zì chéng

026   04   其所以失之 qí suŏ yĭ shī zhī
027   05   必以憂樂喜怒欲利  bì yĭ yōu lè xĭ nù yù lì
028   06   能去憂樂喜怒欲利  néng qù yōu lè xĭ nù yù lì
029   07   心乃反齊  xīn năi făn qí

030   08   彼心之情  bĭ xīn zhī qíng
031   09   利安以寧   lì ān yĭ níng
032   10   勿煩勿亂  wù fán wù luàn
033   11   和乃自成  hé năi zì chéng

III
023 01 凡心之刑 fán xīn zhī xíng
0103 凡 fán in general, overall, in every case of, whenever, whatever, whoever, whichever, all of
0104 心 xīn the heart, as the centre of intellectual and emotional activity
0105 之 zhī to go; pronouns: this, that, these, those, him, her, it, them; demonstrative adjectives: this, that, these, those; marker of noun-phrase modification; possessive marker; marker of sentential nominalisation
0106 形 xíng outward form, appearance, shape; structure, contour, outline

024 02 自充自盈 zì chōng zì yíng
0107 自 zì for oneself, of oneself, personally; instinctively, naturally, freely, spontaneously
0108 充 chōng fill, filled; whole, complete, abundant; fit in, fit with, accord with
0109 自 zì for oneself, of oneself, personally; instinctively, naturally, freely, spontaneously
0110 盈 yíng plentitude, plenteous; full, abundant, replete; full to excess, overfull

025 03 自生自成 zì shēng zì chéng

0111 自 zì for oneself, of oneself, personally; instinctively, naturally, freely, spontaneously
0112 生   shēng  life; live, be alive, exist; emerge, come forth, appear; to grow, develop
0113 自 zì for oneself, of oneself, personally; instinctively, naturally, freely, spontaneously
0114 成  chéng   complete, accomplish, achieve; effect(ive); fulfil, realise; whole(ness), make whole, to form, shape; become, develop (to)

026 04 其所以失之 qí suŏ yĭ shī zhī
0115 其 qí his, her, their, its, one’s; the, this, that, such, it (refers to something preceding it)
0116 所 suŏ place, spot, site, location; 所以 suŏyĭ that which is used, wherewithal, means
0117 以 yĭ to use, take (up); use as a tool, instrument, or means
0118 失 shī lose, forfeit, lacking in, not careful about, neglectful of; wrongly done; error, slip
0119 之 zhī to go; pronouns: this, that, these, those, him, her, it, them; demonstrative adjectives: this, that, these, those; marker of noun-phrase modification; possessive marker; marker of sentential nominalisation

027 05 必以憂樂喜怒欲利 bì yĭ yōu lè xĭ nù yù lì

0120 必 bì adv necessarily, certainly; inevitably, invariably
0121 以 yĭ to use, take (up); use as a tool, instrument, or means
0122 憂 yōu anxious, concerned over; fretful; trouble by, burdened with care; grief
0123 樂 lè merry, blithe; delighted; gleeful; (en)joy(ment); take pleasure in, delight in
0124 喜 xĭ delight in, joy(ful), happiness; light-hearted(ness), glad(ness), mirth(ful)
0125 怒 nù angry, infuriated, furious; wrath(ful), wroth; tense, intense
0126 欲 yù want(s), desire(s); craving; desiderate
0127 利 lì profit(able), benefit; gain(ful); successful, favourable; swift, rapid

028 06 能去憂樂喜怒欲利 néng qù yōu lè xĭ nù yù lì
0128 能 néng capacity, (cap)ability; faculty, prowess; capable of, able to
0129 去 qù depart (from), go away (from), leave, go off
0130 憂 yōu anxious, concerned over; fretful; trouble by, burdened with care; grief
0131 樂 lè merry, blithe; delighted; gleeful; (en)joy(ment); take pleasure in, delight in
0132 喜 xĭ delight in, joy(ful), happiness; light-hearted(ness), glad(ness), mirth(ful)
0133 怒 nù angry, infuriated, furious; wrath(ful), wroth; tense, intense
0134 欲 yù want(s), desire(s); craving; desiderate
0135 利 lì profit(able), benefit; gain(ful); successful, favourable; swift, rapid

029 07 心乃反齊 xīn năi făn qí
0136 心 xīn the heart, as the centre of intellectual and emotional activity
0137 乃 năi then, only then; with that, given that, thereupon; so, thus
0138 反 făn turn over, invert, turn upward; turn back, reverse, go back, return, turn round; contrary, opposite, oppose; look inside, introspection
0139 齊 qí ready, complete; altogether; act in concert; bring into line; compose, arrange, array

030 08 彼心之情 bĭ xīn zhī qíng
0140 彼 bĭ that, those, the other, there
0141 心 xīn the heart, as the centre of intellectual and emotional activity
0142 之 zhī to go; pronouns: this, that, these, those, him, her, it, them; demonstrative adjectives: this, that, these, those; marker of noun-phrase modification; possessive marker; marker of sentential nominalisation
0143 情 qíng the actual situation; properties; matters; circumstance(s)

031 09 利安以寧 lì ān yĭ níng
0144 利 lì profit(able), benefit; gain(ful); successful, favourable; swift, rapid
0145 安 ān firmly in place; stable, secure; safe; unworried, settled, calm
0146 以 yĭ to use, take (up); use as a tool, instrument, or means
0147 寧 níng peaceful, tranquil, irenic; pacify, calm

032 10 勿煩勿亂 wù fán wù luàn
0148 勿 wù prohibitive negative: do not
0149 煩 fán vex(atious), irk(some), annoy(ance), irritate, peeve; trouble(some), bother(some); confusingly or unnecessarily many, overmuch; overcomplicated, loaded with trivia
0150 勿 wù prohibitive negative: do not
0151 亂 luàn disorder(ly), disarray; chaos; trouble(d), confuse(d); rebel, revolt

033 11 和乃自成 hé năi zì chéng
0152 和 hé harmony, bring into harmony; harmonious, of sound; in harmony with, accordant; euphonious
0153 乃 năi then, only then; with that, given that, thereupon; so, thus
0154 自 zì for oneself, of oneself, personally; instinctively, naturally, freely, spontaneously
0155 成  chéng   complete, accomplish, achieve; effect(ive); fulfil, realise; whole(ness), make whole, to form, shape; become, develop (to)

TRANSLATIONS

Three

All the forms of the mind
Are naturally infused and filled with it [the vital essence],
Are naturally generated and developed [because of] it.

It is lost
Inevitably because of sorrow, happiness, joy, anger, desire, and profit-seeking.
If you are able to cast off sorrow, happiness, joy, anger, desire and profit-seeking,
Your mind will just revert to equanimity.

The true condition of the mind
Is that it finds calmness beneficial and, by it, attains repose.
Do not disturb it, do not disrupt it
And harmony will naturally develop.

(Translated by Harold D. Roth, 1999)

Three

The form of the heart is
Spontaneously full and replete,
Spontaneously born and complete.

It loses this form through
care and joy, pleasure and anger, desire and profit-seeking.
If are able to rid itself of
care and joy, pleasure and anger, desire and profit-seeking,
the heart returns to completion.

The natural feelings of the heart cleave to rest and calm;
Don’t trouble them, don’t derange them,
and harmony will spontaneously be perfect.

(Translated by Robert Eno, 2005)

Three

Always: the form of the heart/mind is
Naturally full, naturally overflowing,
Naturally born, naturally complete.

The reason that you lose it
Is certainly due to worries and happiness, love and anger, desire for profit.
If you can leave behind worries and happiness, love and anger, desire for profit,
Your heart/mind then returns [to its original nature] successfully.

The nature of that heart/mind
Benefits from calmness and the tranquility that comes from it.
Do not be troubled, do not be confused,
And harmony is then naturally achieved.

(Translated by Bruce R. Linnell, 2011)

Three

Invariably, the heart-mind’s decisions
Naturally occupy it, naturally fill it.
They spontaneously arise, and spontaneously ripen.

They can become wayward
As a result of sorrow, pleasure, euphoria, anger, desire, and avarice.
If you can abandon sorrow, pleasure, euphoria, anger, desire, and avarice,
The heart will return back to the shore (of calm and stability).

It is the nature of the heart and mind
To benefit from tranquility and relaxation.
Do not agitate it, do not disturb it,
And harmony will naturally perfect it.

(Translated by Dan G. Reid, 2018)

內業 Nèiyè Inner Cultivation: part 2 of 26

009   01   是故此氣  shì gù cĭ qì
010   02   杲乎如登於天  găo hū rú dēng yú tiān
011   03   杳乎如入於淵  yăo hū rú rù yú yuān
012   04   綽乎如在於海  chuò hū rú zài yú hăi
013   05   崒乎如在於屺   zú hū rú zài yú qǐ

014   06   是故此氣也  shì gù cĭ qì yĕ
015   07   不可止以力  bù kĕ zhĭ yĭ lì
016   08   而可安以德  ér kĕ ān yĭ dé
017   09   不可呼以聲  bù kĕ hū yĭ shēng
018   10   而可迎以意  ér kĕ yíng yĭ yì

019   11   敬守勿失  jìng shŏu wù shī
020   12   是謂成德  shì wèi chéng dé
021   13   德成而智出  dé chéng ér zhì chū
022   14   萬物畢得  wàn wù bì dé

II

009 01 是故此氣 shì gù cĭ qì
0033 是 shì this, that, these, those; he, they, any, any such; affirm, assert, prove out, prove to be so; true, right; what is this way, as it is supposed to be; 是故 shì gù therefore, so, and so, for this reason, on this account
0034 故 gù reason, cause, purpose; therefore, assuredly, affirmedly, certainly, surely
0035 此 cĭ this, these, here
0036 氣 qì vital breath, pneuma, energising breath, life-force, material force. The force characterized by a blending of yin and yang, that animates each living creature and also runs through the inanimate universe; regarded as hybrid or dual in nature, described as neither just matter nor just energy, or rather as matter-energy; 氣 qì is the basic constituent element of the universe—Kroll, 2015.

010 02 杲乎如登於天 găo hū rú dēng yú tiān
0037 杲 găo glimmer, glint, break into light, like the just-rising sun; brightening; ascend in the distance
0038 乎 hū interrogative or exclamatory final particle
0039 如 rú follow, defer to, comply with, according to, in light of; this, such a/an; in this way, so, such as; if
0040 登 dēng climb, ascend, rise; (sur)mount
0041 於   yú   in, at, on, to, from, with regard to; than
0042 天   tiān   the sky, the heavens, celestial

011 03 杳乎如入於淵 yăo hū rú rù yú yuān
0043 杳 yăo indistinct, obscure; vague, blurred; impenetrable, unfathomable
0044 乎 hū interrogative or exclamatory final particle
0045 如 rú follow, defer to, comply with, according to, in light of; this, such a/an; in this way, so, such as; if
0046 入 rù enter, pass into, go in
0047 於   yú   in, at, on, to, from, with regard to; than
0048 淵 yuān vortex, gyre; whirlpool, maelstrom; abyss, seemingly bottomless gulf; deep, profound; unplumbable, immeasurable

012 04 淖乎如在於海 nào hū rú zài yú hăi
0049 淖 nào temperate, gentle; be in accord
0050 乎 hū interrogative or exclamatory final particle
0051 如 rú follow, defer to, comply with, according to, in light of; this, such a/an; in this way, so, such as; if
0052 在 zài be located at, situated; rest in, reside in, lie in; consist in depend on; be present; exist, live; at, in, on
0053 於   yú   in, at, on, to, from, with regard to; than
0054 海 hăi sea, ocean; marine, maritime

013 05 崒乎如在於屺 zú hū rú zài yú qǐ
0055 崒   zú jut up; rearing ruggedly
0056 乎 hū interrogative or exclamatory final particle
0057 如 rú follow, defer to, comply with, according to, in light of; this, such a/an; in this way, so, such as; if
0058 在 zài be located at, situated; rest in, reside in, lie in; consist in depend on; be present; exist, live; at, in, on
0059 於   yú   in, at, on, to, from, with regard to; than
0060 屺   qǐ hill or mountain denuded of vegetation, bare mound

014 06 是故此氣也 shì gù cĭ qì yĕ
0061 是 shì this, that, these, those; he, they, any, any such; affirm, assert, prove out, prove to be so; true, right; what is this way, as it is supposed to be; 是故 shì gù therefore, so, and so, for this reason, on this account
0062 故 gù reason, cause, purpose; therefore, assuredly, affirmedly, certainly, surely
0063 此 cĭ this, these, here
0064 氣 qì vital breath, pneuma, energising breath, life-force, material force. The force characterized by a blending of yin and yang, that animates each living creature and also runs through the inanimate universe; regarded as hybrid or dual in nature, described as neither just matter nor just energy, or rather as matter-energy; 氣 qì is the basic constituent element of the universe—Kroll, 2015.
0065 也 yĕ classical final particle of strong affirmation or identity; marking sentence-initial noun-phrases as topics; final particle in verbal sentences marking continuative aspect

015 07 不可止以力 bù kĕ zhĭ yĭ lì
0066 不 bù generic pre-verbal negative, not; negative prefix; 不可 bù kĕ cannot, should not, must not
0067 可 kĕ possible, permissible, feasible; allow(able), admit; may, can
0068 止 zhĭ stop, halt, end; cease, cessation; only, merely, just
0069 以 yĭ to use, take (up); use as a tool, instrument, or means
0070 力 lì strength, power(ful); force(ful); ability, potency; vigour(ous), strenuous

016 08 而可安以德 ér kĕ ān yĭ dé
0071 而 ér verbal-phrase conjunction, occurs between two verbal-phrases subordinating the former to the latter: and, and then, and yet, yet (not), but, but (not), as well as; indicates causal relation; indicates change of state; indicates contrast
0072 可 kĕ possible, permissible, feasible; allow(able), admit; may, can
0073 安 ān firmly in place; stable, secure; safe; unworried, settled, calm
0074 以 yĭ to use, take (up); use as a tool, instrument, or means
0075 德 dé innate (inner) power, potency, efficacy; sometimes thought of as projection of the 道 Dao (Way) in the sensible world; traditionally translated as ‘virtue,’ but having no religious overtones—Kroll, 2015.

017 09 不可呼以聲 bù kĕ hū yĭ shēng
0076 不 bù generic pre-verbal negative, not; negative prefix; 不可 bù kĕ cannot, should not, must not
0077 可 kĕ possible, permissible, feasible; allow(able), admit; may, can
0078 呼 hū to call, to cry, to shout, to breath out, to exhale, breath sigh
0079 以 yĭ to use, take (up); use as a tool, instrument, or means
0080 聲 shēng sound, noise; voice

018 10 而可迎以意 ér kĕ yíng yĭ yì
0081 而 ér verbal-phrase conjunction, occurs between two verbal-phrases subordinating the former to the latter: and, and then, and yet, yet (not), but, but (not), as well as; indicates causal relation; indicates change of state; indicates contrast
0082 可 kĕ possible, permissible, feasible; allow(able), admit; may, can
0083 迎 yíng receive, accept; welcome, greet; acquiesce to, comply with
0084 以 yĭ to use, take (up); use as a tool, instrument, or means
0085 意 yì thought, idea; mentation; intent(ion), purpose

019 11 敬守勿失 jìng shŏu wù shĭ
0086 敬 jìng respect(ful), revere(nce), regard with honor; serious; solemn, grave; reflective, somber
0087 守 shŏu keep safe, safeguard; to ward, keep ward; hold to, keep to; abide by, observe
0088 勿 wù prohibitive negative: do not
0089 失 shī lose, forfeit, lacking in, not careful about, neglectful of; wrongly done; error, slip

020 12 是謂成德 shì wèi chéng dé
0090 是 shì this, that, these, those; he, they, any, any such; affirm, assert, prove out, prove to be so; true, right; what is this way, as it is supposed to be
0091 謂   wèi   to speak, to say, to name, to designate, to tell, to call, be called, meaning, sense
0092 成 chéng complete, accomplish, achieve; effect(ive); fulfill, realise; whole(ness), make whole, to form, shape; become, develop (to)
0093 德 dé innate (inner) power, potency, efficacy; sometimes thought of as projection of the 道 Dao (Way) in the sensible world; traditionally translated as ‘virtue,’ but having no religious overtones—Kroll, 2015.

021 13 德成而智出 dé chéng ér zhì chū
0094 德 dé innate (inner) power, potency, efficacy; sometimes thought of as projection of the 道 Dao (Way) in the sensible world; traditionally translated as ‘virtue,’ but having no religious overtones—Kroll, 2015.
0095 成 chéng complete, accomplish, achieve; effect(ive); fulfilled, realise; whole(ness), make whole, to form, shape; become, develop (to)
0096 而 ér verbal-phrase conjunction, occurs between two verbal-phrases subordinating the former to the latter: and, and then, and yet, yet (not), but, but (not), as well as; indicates causal relation; indicates change of state; indicates contrast
0097 智 zhì wisdom, knowledge; cognition, intelligence; sentence; insight, gnosis
0098 出 chū go or come out (from), come or go forth; issue (from), emerge(nt); go or reach beyond; exceed, surpass

022 14 萬物畢得 wàn wù bì dé
0099 萬 wàn ten thousand, myriad; countless, innumerable; 萬物 wàn wù the myriad phenomena (of the world); all living things
0100 物 wù things; matters, material things; phenomena; living beings
0101 畢 bì finish, bring to an end; all of, to the last one; completely
0102 得 dé obtain, get, gain, attain(ment), acquire(ment); have control of, possess

TRANSLATIONS
Two

Therefore this vital energy is:
Bright! — as if ascending the heavens;
Dark! — as if entering an abyss;
Vast! — as if dwelling in an ocean;
Lofty! — as if dwelling on a mountain peak.

Therefore this vital energy
Cannot be halted by force,
Yet can be secured by inner power [Te].
Cannot be summoned by speech,
Yet can be welcomed by awareness.

Reverently hold onto it and do not lose it:
This is called “developing inner power.”
When inner power develops and wisdom emerges,
The myriad things will, to the last one, be grasped.

(Translated by Harold D. Roth, 1999)

 

Two

This qi is

So bright! As though climbing to heaven.

So dark! As though entering the abyss.
So broad! As though permeating the sea.

So compact! As though residing within oneself.

This qi

Cannot be detained through physical force,
but may be brought to rest by force of virtue.
It may not be summoned by means of sound,
but may be received through one’s thoughts.

To guard it alertly without fail,
This is called perfect virtue.
When virtue is perfected wisdom emerges
and all the things of the world are grasped.

(Translated by Robert Eno, 2005)

Two

Thus the Qi of the citizens :
Is it bright? As though ascending to heaven.
Is it dark and quiet? As though entering into an abyss.
Is it wide and spacious? As though residing in the ocean.
Is it close? As though residing in oneself.

Thus this Qi –
Cannot be brought to rest by using force,
But can be calmed by using De.
Cannot be summoned by using your voice,
But can be made welcome by using your intent.

When you can respectfully maintain it, and never lose it,
This is called developed De.
When De develops, and wisdom arises,
The bounty of the ten thousand creatures is attained.

(Translated by Bruce R. Linnell, 2011)

Two

As a result (of essence), the energy-breath of common people (becomes)
Bright! As though rising up to the heavens;
Dark! As though entering the depths;
Spacious! As though within an ocean;
Enclosed! As though entirely self-contained.

As a result, this energy-breath
Cannot be stopped with effort,
Yet can be made peaceful through virtue;
Cannot be called over with a shout,
Yet can be welcomed with a harmonious tone (intent).

Honor it and guard it within. Do not neglect it.
This is called ripening virtue.
When virtue has ripened, wisdom comes forth,
And the myriad things attain fruition.

(Translated by Dan G. Reid, 2018)

NEIYE FAQ OR NOT FAQ 2018 PART 01

How many characters are there inside the whole 內業 Nèiyè (Inner Cultivation) text?

I really don’t care, do u? We are just in the beginning of rewriting all vocabularies for all chapters and the emendations from the Harold D. Roth edition (1999) will be included. So some characters will go out, some characters will be changed in writing and some of them will sound different.

How many characters are there in the first part?

I really care, don’t u? And answer is easy: 8 lines multiplied by 4 equals 32. These 32 characters are truly magic if you read them every day and care after them using your pen or brush, or brain, or heart, or all put together to enjoy ancient ideas and your precious time guaranteed to be spent properly.

Can you place all 32 characters from the first part in the alphabetical order?

I thought you’ll never ask! Watch the magic:
C
藏 cáng store up, reserve, hoard; keep safe; hide away, secrete
此 cĭ this, these, here

D
地 dì earth, soil, as land

F
凡 fán in general, overall, in every case of, whenever, whatever, whoever, whichever, all of

G
穀 gŭ grain, cereal, common food crops
鬼 guĭ returning spirit of the dead, revenant, ghost, specter; often associated with the carnal-soul (魄 pò) that is tied to the earth; 鬼神 guĭ shén gods and demons (Roth translates it like ‘ghostly and numinous’, others follow ‘ghosts and spirits’)

J
間 jiān NB This graph a medieval development of 閒 xián, interstice of space, interval, space between, in between, among, in the midst of
精 jīng essence; purest, most highly concentrated element; germinal essence, life-germ contained in the Dao; the energy that nourishes the human body and is esp. attached to sexuality (semen, menstrual fluid); seminal; vital; seed(ling)

L
列 liè to array, arrange in ranks or sequence; sign up, align(meant); set out; enlist(meant). 列星 liè xīng star alignment (in astrology)
流 liú flow, drift, course, glide, run, stream; circulate, distribute, spread

R
人 rén person, human being, man, mankind, others, the other one(s)

S
上 shàng on top, on high, above, higher, up(ward)
神 shén spirit(ual), god(ly), divine, deity; sacred, etherial, holy; natural order, law of nature
生 shēng life; live, be alive, exist; emerge, come forth, appear; to grow, develop
聖 shèng possessing wisdom, judgment, and moral excellence; profoundly wise and virtuous; sage(ly), sagacious. 聖人 shèng rén saint, sage

T
天 tiān the sky, the heavens, celestial; 天地 tiān dì heaven and earth, world

W
為 wéi do; make, contrive; effect; carry out
五 wŭ numeral five; fifth. 五穀 wŭ gŭ five crops (millet, sesame, soya beans, barley or wheat, rice or other variants), all crops, all grains
謂 wèi speak to; speak about, address, say, tell of; to call, term, refer to as, to mean
物 wù things, matters, material things, phenomena, the exterior world, human beings

X
下 xià below, low(er), under, at the bottom; down(ward), go down, decline, to go down, fall
星 xīng star; astral, star-like
胸 xiōng breast, chest, as seat of affections; inner mind; 胸中 xiōng zhōng one’s mind

Y
於 yú in, at, on, to, from, with regard to

Z
則 zé standard, norm, precept; rule, example; usual, follow a law; VB-phrase conjunction, occurs between two VB-phrases subordinating the former to the latter, specifically with the meaning ‘if VB-phrase 1, then VB-phrase 2’
之 zhī to go; pronouns: this, that, these, those, him, her, it, them; demonstrative adjectives: this, that, these, those; marker of noun-phrase modification; possessive marker; marker of sentential nominalisation
中 zhōng in, inner, innermost, inside, among; centre, central, middle, in the midst of

How many different characters are there in the first part we should learn soon?

If you will memorise 27 characters you can read the first part in 32 characters without teacher’s presence. And believe me, nobody cares what you read, right?

內業 Nèiyè Inner Cultivation Part 1 of 26

Please note that any partition of any translator you can find online or here are just for your temporal comfortability: they are not original to the text, or better to say there is no hard evidence for that. And I don’t use punctuation marks because it is so COOLER to read and concentrate only on the inner meaning of characters. Let’s call it ‘deeper understanding of ancient ideas’ 🙂

I
001 凡物之精 fán wù zhī jīng
002 此則為生 cĭ zé wéi shēng
003 下生五穀 xià shēng wŭ gŭ
004 上為列星 shàng wéi liè xīng
005 流天地間 liú tiān dì jiān
006 謂之鬼神 wèi zhī guĭ shén
007 藏於胸中 cāng yú xiōng zhōng
008 謂之聖人 wèi zhī shèng rén

001 凡物之精 fán wù zhī jīng

0001 凡 fán in general, overall, in every case of, whenever, whatever, whoever, whichever, all of
0002 物 wù things, matters, material things, phenomena, the exterior world, human beings
0003 之 zhī to go; pronouns: this, that, these, those, him, her, it, them; demonstrative adjectives: this, that, these, those; marker of noun-phrase modification; possessive marker; marker of sentential nominalisation
0004 精 jīng essence; purest, most highly concentrated element; germinal essence, life-germ contained in the Dao; the energy that nourishes the human body and is esp. attached to sexuality (semen, menstrual fluid); seminal; vital; seed(ling)

002 比則為生 cĭ zé wéi shēng

0005 此 cĭ this, these, here
0006 則 zé standard, norm, precept; rule, example; usual, follow a law; VB-phrase conjunction, occurs between two VB-phrases subordinating the former to the latter, specifically with the meaning ‘if VB-phrase 1, then VB-phrase 2’
0007 為 wéi do; make, contrive; effect; carry out
0008 生 shēng life; live, be alive, exist; emerge, come forth, appear; to grow, develop

003 下生五穀 xià shēng wŭ gŭ

0009 下 xià below, low(er), under, at the bottom; down(ward), go down, decline, to go down, fall
0010 生 shēng life; live, be alive, exist; emerge, come forth, appear; to grow, develop
0011 五 wŭ numeral five; fifth.五穀 wŭ gŭ five crops (millet, sesame, soya beans, barley or wheat, rice or other variants), all crops, all grains
0012 穀 gŭ grain, cereal, common food crops.

004 上為列星 shàng wéi liè xīng

0013 上 shàng on top, on high, above, higher, up(ward)
0014 為 wéi do; make, contrive; effect; carry out
0015 列 liè to array, arrange in ranks or sequence; sign up, align(meant); set out; enlist(meant).
列星 liè xīng star alignment (in astrology)
0016 星 xīng star; astral, star-like

005 流天地間 liú tiān dì jiān

0017 流 liú flow, drift, course, glide, run, stream; circulate, distribute, spread
0018 天 tiān the sky, the heavens, celestial; 天地 tiān dì heaven and earth, world
0019 地 dì earth, soil, as land
0020 間 jiān NB This graph a medieval development of 閒 xián, interstice of space, interval, space between, in between, among, in the midst of

006 謂之鬼神 wèi zhī guĭ shén

0021 謂 wèi speak to; speak about, address, say, tell of; to call, term, refer to as, to mean
0022 之 zhī to go; pronouns: this, that, these, those, him, her, it, them; demonstrative adjectives: this, that, these, those; marker of noun-phrase modification; possessive marker; marker of sentential nominalisation
0023 鬼 guĭ returning spirit of the dead, revenant, ghost, specter; often associated with the carnal-soul (魄 pò) that is tied to the earth; 鬼神 guĭ shén gods and demons (Roth translates it like ‘ghostly and numinous’, others follow ‘ghosts and spirits’)
0024 神 shén spirit(ual), god(ly), divine, deity; sacred, etherial, holy; natural order, law of nature

007 藏於胸中 cáng yú xiōng zhōng

0025 藏 cáng store up, reserve, hoard; keep safe; hide away, secrete
0026 於 yú in, at, on, to, from, with regard to
0027 胸 xiōng breast, chest, as seat of affections; inner mind; 胸中 xiōng zhōng one’s mind
0028 中 zhōng in, inner, innermost, inside, among; centre, central, middle, in the midst of

008 謂之聖人 wèi zhī shèng rén

0029 謂 wèi speak to; speak about, address, say, tell of; to call, term, refer to as, to mean
0030 之 zhī to go; pronouns: this, that, these, those, him, her, it, them; demonstrative adjectives: this, that, these, those; marker of noun-phrase modification; possessive marker; marker of sentential nominalisation
0031 聖 shèng possessing wisdom, judgment, and moral excellence; profoundly wise and virtuous; sage(ly), sagacious. 聖人 shèng rén saint, sage
0032 人 rén person, human being, man, mankind, others, the other one(s)

TRANSLATIONS (VR1-4)

I

The vital essence of all things:
It is this that brings them to life.
It generates the five grains below
And becomes the constellated stars above.
When flowing amid the heavens and the earth
We call it ghostly and numinous.
When stored within the chests of human beings,
We call them sages.—Harold D. Roth 1999

I

It is the essence of things
That gives life to them.
Below, it gives birth to the five grains;
Above, it is the ranks of stars.
Flowing between heaven and earth:
We call these ghosts and spirits.
Stored within the breast:
We call these sages.—Robert Eno 2005

I

Always: the essence of creatures –
This then makes them live.
Below, it gives birth to the five grains;
Above, it acts to arrange the stars.
When it flows in the space between heaven and earth
We call them ghosts and spirits.
When it collects in the center of the breast of people,
We call them sages.—Bruce R. Linnell 2011

I

It is invariably the essence of things
That gives them life.
Below, it gives birth to the five grains;
Above, it aligns the stars.
Circulating between Heaven and Earth,
We call them ghosts and spirits;
Collected within the bosom,
We call them sages.—Dan G. Reid 2018

NOTE: The translation made by Harold D. Roth can be easy found online but it is left unclear: Can I or cannot use it for educational purpose part by part (as well as translation from the digital edition of Dan G. Reid). As far as I can see, translation made by Robert Eno is copyright-free. The translation made by Bruce R. Linnell was placed online under a Creative Commons license and I hope it will be useful for those who feel difficulty to understand Classical Chinese instantly. Please remember, my main goal is to make TRADITIONAL CHINESE writing and Pinyin tone pronunciation notes closer to those students who want enjoy the VOICE OF HISTORY AND WISDOM BEHIND CLASSICAL CHINESE TEXT without comments and translations.

INTRODUCTION: 內業 Nèiyè (Inner Cultivation), or HUMANKIND IS ALMOST READY IN 2018

As far as I can see, humanity is not ready yet to print out this text in Classical Chinese (as it was not ready a few years ago) and Pinyin with tones with two or three translations into English with unique numeration of every line under one cover. Probably, editors and readers will be inspired to do it soon. So people just keep printing ancient Chinese texts without tones and sometimes without Pinyin, and electronic dictionaries built inside reading apps sometimes work, work partially from time to time, or do not work on a whim. At least, Chinese characters don’t look like foreigners in the white frames on the display. But four (!) translations here made by professionals (1999, 2005, 2011, and 2018) prove that readiness is somewhere close to me, and I am going to bring it closer to you too. Readers, read the blog.

This fresh project 2018 will include original Classical Chinese text 內業 Nèiyè (Inner Cultivation) chapter by chapter with all emendations made by Harold D. Roth and glossary pages will follow A Student’s Dictionary of Classical and Medieval Chinese, Paul W. Kroll, 2015.

Principal books jam session

1 Original Tao: Inward Training (Nei-yeh) And The Foundations of Taoist Mysticism by Harold D. Roth, Columbia University Press, 1999, 276 pages paper book (Inward Training pp. 46-97: Traditional Chinese with line numeration and English translation, no Pinyin and tones, ancient pronunciation to show last character in the line only).

2 Translation by Robert Eno (2005) was googled and rewritten following chapters from Harold D. Roth edition.

3 Translation by Bruce R. Linnell (2011) was googled and rewritten following chapters from Harold D. Roth edition.

4 The Thread of Dao: Unraveling Early Daoist Oral Traditions in Guan Zi’s Purifying the Heart-Mind (Bai Xin), Art of the Heart-Mind (Xin Shu), and Internal Cultivation (Nei Ye) 2018, Center Ring Publishing, Montreal, QC, Canada. Electronic book. Translation, annotations, and commentary by Dan G. Reid.

5 Outline of Classical Chinese Grammar by Edwin G. Pulleyblank, UBC Press, Vancouver, Canada, 1995. Fifteen chapters from Introduction and Some Basic Principles of Classical Chinese Syntax to Complex Sentences, 194 pages.

6 Du’s Handbook of Classical Chinese Grammar (An Introduction to Classical Chinese Grammar) Contributors: Archie Barns, Don Starr, and Graham Ormerod, 2009, Great Britain. Absolutely wonderful reference book including small dictionary for grammar section (1,189 characters and five short stories with grammar explanation for beginners).

7 A Student’s Dictionary of Classical and Medieval Chinese by Paul W. Crawl, BRILL Leiden/Boston edition 2015, 714 pages: that was nice reading page by page during some months in winter and making synopsis of entries you liked the best of all, duh!