內業 Nèiyè (Inner Cultivation) Part 7 of 26

VII

079   01   天主正  tiān zhŭ zhēng
080   02   地主平  dì zhŭ píng
081   03   人主靜  rén zhŭ jìng

082   04   春秋冬夏天之時也  chūn qiū dōng xià tiān zhī shí yĕ
083   05   山陵川谷地之材  shān líng chuān gŭ dì zhī cái
084   06   喜怒取予人之謀也  xĭ nù qŭ yú rén zhī móu yĕ

085   07   是故聖人  shì gù shèng rén
086   08   與時變而不化  yù shí biàn ér bù huà
087   09   從物遷而不移    cóng wù qiān ér bù yí

VII
079 01 天主正 tiān zhŭ zhēng
0387 天   tiān   the sky, the heavens, celestial
0388 主 zhŭ the one in a dominant, principal, or presiding position; master, host; rule, control
0389 正 zhēng correct, proper, conforming to standards; exactly, precisely, rightly

080 02 地主平 dì zhŭ píng
0390 地 dì earth, soil, as land
0391 主 zhŭ the one in a dominant, principal, or presiding position; master, host; rule, control
0392 平 píng level, flat; even; equal(ize); fair, just, impartial; tranquil(ity), calm; peaceful; pacify, quiet; bring to terms, lay out in proper order

081 03 人主靜 rén zhŭ jìng
0393 人 rén person, human being, man, mankind, others, the other one(s)
0394 主 zhŭ the one in a dominant, principal, or presiding position; master, host; rule, control
0395 靜 jìng still(ness), motionless, immobile; quiet(ness); concentration

082 04 春秋冬夏天之時也 chūn qiū dōng xià tiān zhī shí yĕ
0396 春 chūn springtime, vernal; vigour, vitality; youth(fulness), sexual desire; 春 秋 chūnqiū spring(s) and autumn(s), synecdoche for a year
0397 秋 qiū autumn, harvest time; synecdoche for year; melancholy
0398 冬 dōng winter, brumal
0399 夏 xià summertime, estival; grand, vast
0400 天   tiān   the sky, the heavens, celestial
0401 之 zhī to go; pronouns: this, that, these, those, him, her, it, them; demonstrative adjectives: this, that, these, those; marker of noun-phrase modification; possessive marker; marker of sentential nominalisation
0402 時 shí season of the year; seasonal, timely, at the right time; specific period or moment of time; a period, age, era
0403 也 yĕ classical final particle of strong affirmation or identity; marking sentence-initial noun-phrases as topics; final particle in verbal sentences marking continuative aspect

083 05 山陵川谷地之材 shān líng chuān gŭ dì zhī cái
0404 山 shān mountain(ous), either single mountain or massif mountain range
0405 陵 líng large earthen (not rocky) mound, knoll; slope
0406 川 chuān river, watercourse; stream
0407 谷 gŭ valley, vale; chasm, cave
0408 地 dì earth, soil, as land
0409 之 zhī to go; pronouns: this, that, these, those, him, her, it, them; demonstrative adjectives: this, that, these, those; marker of noun-phrase modification; possessive marker; marker of sentential nominalisation
0410 材 cái wood in natural state, timber, lumber; basic resource, heaven-given capacity, genius, gift, talent

084 06 喜怒取予人之謀也 xĭ nù qŭ yú rén zhī móu yĕ
0411 喜 xĭ delight in, joy(ful), happiness; light-hearted(ness), glad(ness), mirth(ful)
0412 怒 nù angry, infuriated, furious; wrath(ful), wroth; tense, intense
0413 取 qŭ take, seize, take away, acquire, capture; choose, select; adopt, accept
0414 予 yú 1st-person pronoun; 予/與 yŭ to give, commend
0415 人 rén person, human being, man, mankind, others, the other one(s)
0416 之 zhī to go; pronouns: this, that, these, those, him, her, it, them; demonstrative adjectives: this, that, these, those; marker of noun-phrase modification; possessive marker; marker of sentential nominalisation
0417 謀 móu take counsel with, consult; advice; plan; plot, scheme; strategy, policy; plan of action, design
0418 也 yĕ classical final particle of strong affirmation or identity; marking sentence-initial noun-phrases as topics; final particle in verbal sentences marking continuative aspect

085 07 是故聖人 shì gù shèng rén
0419 是 shì this, that, these, those; he, they, any, any such; affirm, assert, prove out, prove to be so; true, right; what is this way, as it is supposed to be; 是故 shì gù therefore, so, and so, for this reason, on this account
0420 故 gù reason, cause, purpose; therefore, assuredly, certainly, surely
0421 聖 shèng possessing wisdom, judgment, and moral excellence; profoundly wise and virtuous; sage(ly), sagacious. 聖人 shèng rén saint, sage
0422 人 rén person, human being, man, mankind, others, the other one(s)

086 08 與時變而不化 yù shí biàn ér bù huà
0423 與 yù—participate, take part with, join in; yŭ—give to, grant to, accord to, prove for, assist; be associated with; yú sentence-final interrogative
0424 時 shí season of the year; seasonal, timely, at the right time; specific period or moment of time; a period, age, era
0425 變 biàn change, alter(ation), permute, permutation; change into, transform(ation); external; momentary or apparent change; adapt(ation), versatile, variable; flexible
0426 而 ér verbal-phrase conjunction, occurs between two verbal-phrases subordinating the former to the latter: and, and then, and yet, yet (not), but, but (not), as well as; indicates causal relation; indicates change of state; indicates contrast
0427 不 bù generic pre-verbal negative, not; negative prefix
0428 化 huà transform(ation), change, transmute, permutate; provide the trigger or reason for change, catalyse; persuade, suasive

087 09 從物遷而不移 cóng wù qiān ér bù yí
0429 從 cóng follow, go with; come or go after; obey; comply with; go along with; by way of, by means of
0430 物 wù things; matters, material things; phenomena; living beings
0431 遷 qiān transfer, relocate, transport; displace, divert; change, transform, modify; reform, change to the better; be transported in spirit; exhilarated
0432 而 ér verbal-phrase conjunction, occurs between two verbal-phrases subordinating the former to the latter: and, and then, and yet, yet (not), but, but (not), as well as; indicates causal relation; indicates change of state; indicates contrast
0433 不 bù generic pre-verbal negative, not; negative prefix
0434 移 yí move or shift from one place to another, transfer; convey; remove, move aside; change, alter, modify; adjust

TRANSLATIONS

Seven

For the heavens, the ruling principle is to be aligned.
For the earth, the ruling principle is to be level.
For human beings the ruling principle is to be tranquil.

Spring, autumn, winter and summer are the seasons of the heavens.
Mountains, hills, rivers, and valleys are the resources of the earth.
Pleasure and anger, accepting and rejecting are the devices of human beings.

Therefore, the sage:
Alters with the seasons but doesn’t transform,
Shifts with things but doesn’t change places with them.

(Translated by Harold D. Roth, 1999)

The pivot of heaven is uprightness.
The pivot of earth is flatness.

The pivot of man is quiescence.

Spring, autumn, winter, and summer are the season times of heaven.
Mountains ridges and river valleys are the limbs of earth.
Showing pleasure or anger, taking or giving, there are the schemes of man.

The sage adapts with the times but is not transformed,
follows along with things but is not moved by them.

(Translated by Robert Eno, 2005)

That which presides over Heaven is proper alignment,
That which presides over Earth is equability,

That which presides over people is calmness and stillness.

Spring, autumn, winter, summer–The timing of heaven!

Mountains, hills, streams, valleys–The limbs of the earth!
Love, anger, taking, giving–The schemes of the people!

Thus the sage:
Takes part in the changing of the seasons, but is not transformed;
He attends to creatures, but is not changed by them.

(Translated by Bruce R. Linnell, 2011)

Heaven is ruled by alignment;
Earth is ruled by balance;
People are ruled by peaceful silence.

Spring, autumn, winter, and summer
Are the seasons of Heaven;
Mountains, hills, streams, and valleys
Are the extensions of Earth;
Pleasure, anger, taking, and giving
Are the underlying motivations of humanity.

Therefore, Sages
Follow the time of change, yet are not transformed.
They adapt to things, yet are not displaced.

(Translated by Dan G. Reid, 2018)

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