內業 Nèiyè Inner Cultivation: part 2 of 26

009   01   是故此氣  shì gù cĭ qì
010   02   杲乎如登於天  găo hū rú dēng yú tiān
011   03   杳乎如入於淵  yăo hū rú rù yú yuān
012   04   綽乎如在於海  chuò hū rú zài yú hăi
013   05   崒乎如在於屺   zú hū rú zài yú qǐ

014   06   是故此氣也  shì gù cĭ qì yĕ
015   07   不可止以力  bù kĕ zhĭ yĭ lì
016   08   而可安以德  ér kĕ ān yĭ dé
017   09   不可呼以聲  bù kĕ hū yĭ shēng
018   10   而可迎以意  ér kĕ yíng yĭ yì

019   11   敬守勿失  jìng shŏu wù shī
020   12   是謂成德  shì wèi chéng dé
021   13   德成而智出  dé chéng ér zhì chū
022   14   萬物畢得  wàn wù bì dé

II

009 01 是故此氣 shì gù cĭ qì
0033 是 shì this, that, these, those; he, they, any, any such; affirm, assert, prove out, prove to be so; true, right; what is this way, as it is supposed to be; 是故 shì gù therefore, so, and so, for this reason, on this account
0034 故 gù reason, cause, purpose; therefore, assuredly, affirmedly, certainly, surely
0035 此 cĭ this, these, here
0036 氣 qì vital breath, pneuma, energising breath, life-force, material force. The force characterized by a blending of yin and yang, that animates each living creature and also runs through the inanimate universe; regarded as hybrid or dual in nature, described as neither just matter nor just energy, or rather as matter-energy; 氣 qì is the basic constituent element of the universe—Kroll, 2015.

010 02 杲乎如登於天 găo hū rú dēng yú tiān
0037 杲 găo glimmer, glint, break into light, like the just-rising sun; brightening; ascend in the distance
0038 乎 hū interrogative or exclamatory final particle
0039 如 rú follow, defer to, comply with, according to, in light of; this, such a/an; in this way, so, such as; if
0040 登 dēng climb, ascend, rise; (sur)mount
0041 於   yú   in, at, on, to, from, with regard to; than
0042 天   tiān   the sky, the heavens, celestial

011 03 杳乎如入於淵 yăo hū rú rù yú yuān
0043 杳 yăo indistinct, obscure; vague, blurred; impenetrable, unfathomable
0044 乎 hū interrogative or exclamatory final particle
0045 如 rú follow, defer to, comply with, according to, in light of; this, such a/an; in this way, so, such as; if
0046 入 rù enter, pass into, go in
0047 於   yú   in, at, on, to, from, with regard to; than
0048 淵 yuān vortex, gyre; whirlpool, maelstrom; abyss, seemingly bottomless gulf; deep, profound; unplumbable, immeasurable

012 04 淖乎如在於海 nào hū rú zài yú hăi
0049 淖 nào temperate, gentle; be in accord
0050 乎 hū interrogative or exclamatory final particle
0051 如 rú follow, defer to, comply with, according to, in light of; this, such a/an; in this way, so, such as; if
0052 在 zài be located at, situated; rest in, reside in, lie in; consist in depend on; be present; exist, live; at, in, on
0053 於   yú   in, at, on, to, from, with regard to; than
0054 海 hăi sea, ocean; marine, maritime

013 05 崒乎如在於屺 zú hū rú zài yú qǐ
0055 崒   zú jut up; rearing ruggedly
0056 乎 hū interrogative or exclamatory final particle
0057 如 rú follow, defer to, comply with, according to, in light of; this, such a/an; in this way, so, such as; if
0058 在 zài be located at, situated; rest in, reside in, lie in; consist in depend on; be present; exist, live; at, in, on
0059 於   yú   in, at, on, to, from, with regard to; than
0060 屺   qǐ hill or mountain denuded of vegetation, bare mound

014 06 是故此氣也 shì gù cĭ qì yĕ
0061 是 shì this, that, these, those; he, they, any, any such; affirm, assert, prove out, prove to be so; true, right; what is this way, as it is supposed to be; 是故 shì gù therefore, so, and so, for this reason, on this account
0062 故 gù reason, cause, purpose; therefore, assuredly, affirmedly, certainly, surely
0063 此 cĭ this, these, here
0064 氣 qì vital breath, pneuma, energising breath, life-force, material force. The force characterized by a blending of yin and yang, that animates each living creature and also runs through the inanimate universe; regarded as hybrid or dual in nature, described as neither just matter nor just energy, or rather as matter-energy; 氣 qì is the basic constituent element of the universe—Kroll, 2015.
0065 也 yĕ classical final particle of strong affirmation or identity; marking sentence-initial noun-phrases as topics; final particle in verbal sentences marking continuative aspect

015 07 不可止以力 bù kĕ zhĭ yĭ lì
0066 不 bù generic pre-verbal negative, not; negative prefix; 不可 bù kĕ cannot, should not, must not
0067 可 kĕ possible, permissible, feasible; allow(able), admit; may, can
0068 止 zhĭ stop, halt, end; cease, cessation; only, merely, just
0069 以 yĭ to use, take (up); use as a tool, instrument, or means
0070 力 lì strength, power(ful); force(ful); ability, potency; vigour(ous), strenuous

016 08 而可安以德 ér kĕ ān yĭ dé
0071 而 ér verbal-phrase conjunction, occurs between two verbal-phrases subordinating the former to the latter: and, and then, and yet, yet (not), but, but (not), as well as; indicates causal relation; indicates change of state; indicates contrast
0072 可 kĕ possible, permissible, feasible; allow(able), admit; may, can
0073 安 ān firmly in place; stable, secure; safe; unworried, settled, calm
0074 以 yĭ to use, take (up); use as a tool, instrument, or means
0075 德 dé innate (inner) power, potency, efficacy; sometimes thought of as projection of the 道 Dao (Way) in the sensible world; traditionally translated as ‘virtue,’ but having no religious overtones—Kroll, 2015.

017 09 不可呼以聲 bù kĕ hū yĭ shēng
0076 不 bù generic pre-verbal negative, not; negative prefix; 不可 bù kĕ cannot, should not, must not
0077 可 kĕ possible, permissible, feasible; allow(able), admit; may, can
0078 呼 hū to call, to cry, to shout, to breath out, to exhale, breath sigh
0079 以 yĭ to use, take (up); use as a tool, instrument, or means
0080 聲 shēng sound, noise; voice

018 10 而可迎以意 ér kĕ yíng yĭ yì
0081 而 ér verbal-phrase conjunction, occurs between two verbal-phrases subordinating the former to the latter: and, and then, and yet, yet (not), but, but (not), as well as; indicates causal relation; indicates change of state; indicates contrast
0082 可 kĕ possible, permissible, feasible; allow(able), admit; may, can
0083 迎 yíng receive, accept; welcome, greet; acquiesce to, comply with
0084 以 yĭ to use, take (up); use as a tool, instrument, or means
0085 意 yì thought, idea; mentation; intent(ion), purpose

019 11 敬守勿失 jìng shŏu wù shĭ
0086 敬 jìng respect(ful), revere(nce), regard with honor; serious; solemn, grave; reflective, somber
0087 守 shŏu keep safe, safeguard; to ward, keep ward; hold to, keep to; abide by, observe
0088 勿 wù prohibitive negative: do not
0089 失 shī lose, forfeit, lacking in, not careful about, neglectful of; wrongly done; error, slip

020 12 是謂成德 shì wèi chéng dé
0090 是 shì this, that, these, those; he, they, any, any such; affirm, assert, prove out, prove to be so; true, right; what is this way, as it is supposed to be
0091 謂   wèi   to speak, to say, to name, to designate, to tell, to call, be called, meaning, sense
0092 成 chéng complete, accomplish, achieve; effect(ive); fulfill, realise; whole(ness), make whole, to form, shape; become, develop (to)
0093 德 dé innate (inner) power, potency, efficacy; sometimes thought of as projection of the 道 Dao (Way) in the sensible world; traditionally translated as ‘virtue,’ but having no religious overtones—Kroll, 2015.

021 13 德成而智出 dé chéng ér zhì chū
0094 德 dé innate (inner) power, potency, efficacy; sometimes thought of as projection of the 道 Dao (Way) in the sensible world; traditionally translated as ‘virtue,’ but having no religious overtones—Kroll, 2015.
0095 成 chéng complete, accomplish, achieve; effect(ive); fulfilled, realise; whole(ness), make whole, to form, shape; become, develop (to)
0096 而 ér verbal-phrase conjunction, occurs between two verbal-phrases subordinating the former to the latter: and, and then, and yet, yet (not), but, but (not), as well as; indicates causal relation; indicates change of state; indicates contrast
0097 智 zhì wisdom, knowledge; cognition, intelligence; sentence; insight, gnosis
0098 出 chū go or come out (from), come or go forth; issue (from), emerge(nt); go or reach beyond; exceed, surpass

022 14 萬物畢得 wàn wù bì dé
0099 萬 wàn ten thousand, myriad; countless, innumerable; 萬物 wàn wù the myriad phenomena (of the world); all living things
0100 物 wù things; matters, material things; phenomena; living beings
0101 畢 bì finish, bring to an end; all of, to the last one; completely
0102 得 dé obtain, get, gain, attain(ment), acquire(ment); have control of, possess

TRANSLATIONS
Two

Therefore this vital energy is:
Bright! — as if ascending the heavens;
Dark! — as if entering an abyss;
Vast! — as if dwelling in an ocean;
Lofty! — as if dwelling on a mountain peak.

Therefore this vital energy
Cannot be halted by force,
Yet can be secured by inner power [Te].
Cannot be summoned by speech,
Yet can be welcomed by awareness.

Reverently hold onto it and do not lose it:
This is called “developing inner power.”
When inner power develops and wisdom emerges,
The myriad things will, to the last one, be grasped.

(Translated by Harold D. Roth, 1999)

 

Two

This qi is

So bright! As though climbing to heaven.

So dark! As though entering the abyss.
So broad! As though permeating the sea.

So compact! As though residing within oneself.

This qi

Cannot be detained through physical force,
but may be brought to rest by force of virtue.
It may not be summoned by means of sound,
but may be received through one’s thoughts.

To guard it alertly without fail,
This is called perfect virtue.
When virtue is perfected wisdom emerges
and all the things of the world are grasped.

(Translated by Robert Eno, 2005)

Two

Thus the Qi of the citizens :
Is it bright? As though ascending to heaven.
Is it dark and quiet? As though entering into an abyss.
Is it wide and spacious? As though residing in the ocean.
Is it close? As though residing in oneself.

Thus this Qi –
Cannot be brought to rest by using force,
But can be calmed by using De.
Cannot be summoned by using your voice,
But can be made welcome by using your intent.

When you can respectfully maintain it, and never lose it,
This is called developed De.
When De develops, and wisdom arises,
The bounty of the ten thousand creatures is attained.

(Translated by Bruce R. Linnell, 2011)

Two

As a result (of essence), the energy-breath of common people (becomes)
Bright! As though rising up to the heavens;
Dark! As though entering the depths;
Spacious! As though within an ocean;
Enclosed! As though entirely self-contained.

As a result, this energy-breath
Cannot be stopped with effort,
Yet can be made peaceful through virtue;
Cannot be called over with a shout,
Yet can be welcomed with a harmonious tone (intent).

Honor it and guard it within. Do not neglect it.
This is called ripening virtue.
When virtue has ripened, wisdom comes forth,
And the myriad things attain fruition.

(Translated by Dan G. Reid, 2018)

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NEIYE FAQ OR NOT FAQ 2018 PART 01

How many characters are there inside the whole 內業 Nèiyè (Inner Cultivation) text?

I really don’t care, do u? We are just in the beginning of rewriting all vocabularies for all chapters and the emendations from the Harold D. Roth edition (1999) will be included. So some characters will go out, some characters will be changed in writing and some of them will sound different.

How many characters are there in the first part?

I really care, don’t u? And answer is easy: 8 lines multiplied by 4 equals 32. These 32 characters are truly magic if you read them every day and care after them using your pen or brush, or brain, or heart, or all put together to enjoy ancient ideas and your precious time guaranteed to be spent properly.

Can you place all 32 characters from the first part in the alphabetical order?

I thought you’ll never ask! Watch the magic:
C
藏 cáng store up, reserve, hoard; keep safe; hide away, secrete
此 cĭ this, these, here

D
地 dì earth, soil, as land

F
凡 fán in general, overall, in every case of, whenever, whatever, whoever, whichever, all of

G
穀 gŭ grain, cereal, common food crops
鬼 guĭ returning spirit of the dead, revenant, ghost, specter; often associated with the carnal-soul (魄 pò) that is tied to the earth; 鬼神 guĭ shén gods and demons (Roth translates it like ‘ghostly and numinous’, others follow ‘ghosts and spirits’)

J
間 jiān NB This graph a medieval development of 閒 xián, interstice of space, interval, space between, in between, among, in the midst of
精 jīng essence; purest, most highly concentrated element; germinal essence, life-germ contained in the Dao; the energy that nourishes the human body and is esp. attached to sexuality (semen, menstrual fluid); seminal; vital; seed(ling)

L
列 liè to array, arrange in ranks or sequence; sign up, align(meant); set out; enlist(meant). 列星 liè xīng star alignment (in astrology)
流 liú flow, drift, course, glide, run, stream; circulate, distribute, spread

R
人 rén person, human being, man, mankind, others, the other one(s)

S
上 shàng on top, on high, above, higher, up(ward)
神 shén spirit(ual), god(ly), divine, deity; sacred, etherial, holy; natural order, law of nature
生 shēng life; live, be alive, exist; emerge, come forth, appear; to grow, develop
聖 shèng possessing wisdom, judgment, and moral excellence; profoundly wise and virtuous; sage(ly), sagacious. 聖人 shèng rén saint, sage

T
天 tiān the sky, the heavens, celestial; 天地 tiān dì heaven and earth, world

W
為 wéi do; make, contrive; effect; carry out
五 wŭ numeral five; fifth. 五穀 wŭ gŭ five crops (millet, sesame, soya beans, barley or wheat, rice or other variants), all crops, all grains
謂 wèi speak to; speak about, address, say, tell of; to call, term, refer to as, to mean
物 wù things, matters, material things, phenomena, the exterior world, human beings

X
下 xià below, low(er), under, at the bottom; down(ward), go down, decline, to go down, fall
星 xīng star; astral, star-like
胸 xiōng breast, chest, as seat of affections; inner mind; 胸中 xiōng zhōng one’s mind

Y
於 yú in, at, on, to, from, with regard to

Z
則 zé standard, norm, precept; rule, example; usual, follow a law; VB-phrase conjunction, occurs between two VB-phrases subordinating the former to the latter, specifically with the meaning ‘if VB-phrase 1, then VB-phrase 2’
之 zhī to go; pronouns: this, that, these, those, him, her, it, them; demonstrative adjectives: this, that, these, those; marker of noun-phrase modification; possessive marker; marker of sentential nominalisation
中 zhōng in, inner, innermost, inside, among; centre, central, middle, in the midst of

How many different characters are there in the first part we should learn soon?

If you will memorise 27 characters you can read the first part in 32 characters without teacher’s presence. And believe me, nobody cares what you read, right?

內業 Nèiyè Inner Cultivation Part 1 of 26

Please note that any partition of any translator you can find online or here are just for your temporal comfortability: they are not original to the text, or better to say there is no hard evidence for that. And I don’t use punctuation marks because it is so COOLER to read and concentrate only on the inner meaning of characters. Let’s call it ‘deeper understanding of ancient ideas’ 🙂

I
001 凡物之精 fán wù zhī jīng
002 此則為生 cĭ zé wéi shēng
003 下生五穀 xià shēng wŭ gŭ
004 上為列星 shàng wéi liè xīng
005 流天地間 liú tiān dì jiān
006 謂之鬼神 wèi zhī guĭ shén
007 藏於胸中 cāng yú xiōng zhōng
008 謂之聖人 wèi zhī shèng rén

001 凡物之精 fán wù zhī jīng

0001 凡 fán in general, overall, in every case of, whenever, whatever, whoever, whichever, all of
0002 物 wù things, matters, material things, phenomena, the exterior world, human beings
0003 之 zhī to go; pronouns: this, that, these, those, him, her, it, them; demonstrative adjectives: this, that, these, those; marker of noun-phrase modification; possessive marker; marker of sentential nominalisation
0004 精 jīng essence; purest, most highly concentrated element; germinal essence, life-germ contained in the Dao; the energy that nourishes the human body and is esp. attached to sexuality (semen, menstrual fluid); seminal; vital; seed(ling)

002 比則為生 cĭ zé wéi shēng

0005 此 cĭ this, these, here
0006 則 zé standard, norm, precept; rule, example; usual, follow a law; VB-phrase conjunction, occurs between two VB-phrases subordinating the former to the latter, specifically with the meaning ‘if VB-phrase 1, then VB-phrase 2’
0007 為 wéi do; make, contrive; effect; carry out
0008 生 shēng life; live, be alive, exist; emerge, come forth, appear; to grow, develop

003 下生五穀 xià shēng wŭ gŭ

0009 下 xià below, low(er), under, at the bottom; down(ward), go down, decline, to go down, fall
0010 生 shēng life; live, be alive, exist; emerge, come forth, appear; to grow, develop
0011 五 wŭ numeral five; fifth.五穀 wŭ gŭ five crops (millet, sesame, soya beans, barley or wheat, rice or other variants), all crops, all grains
0012 穀 gŭ grain, cereal, common food crops.

004 上為列星 shàng wéi liè xīng

0013 上 shàng on top, on high, above, higher, up(ward)
0014 為 wéi do; make, contrive; effect; carry out
0015 列 liè to array, arrange in ranks or sequence; sign up, align(meant); set out; enlist(meant).
列星 liè xīng star alignment (in astrology)
0016 星 xīng star; astral, star-like

005 流天地間 liú tiān dì jiān

0017 流 liú flow, drift, course, glide, run, stream; circulate, distribute, spread
0018 天 tiān the sky, the heavens, celestial; 天地 tiān dì heaven and earth, world
0019 地 dì earth, soil, as land
0020 間 jiān NB This graph a medieval development of 閒 xián, interstice of space, interval, space between, in between, among, in the midst of

006 謂之鬼神 wèi zhī guĭ shén

0021 謂 wèi speak to; speak about, address, say, tell of; to call, term, refer to as, to mean
0022 之 zhī to go; pronouns: this, that, these, those, him, her, it, them; demonstrative adjectives: this, that, these, those; marker of noun-phrase modification; possessive marker; marker of sentential nominalisation
0023 鬼 guĭ returning spirit of the dead, revenant, ghost, specter; often associated with the carnal-soul (魄 pò) that is tied to the earth; 鬼神 guĭ shén gods and demons (Roth translates it like ‘ghostly and numinous’, others follow ‘ghosts and spirits’)
0024 神 shén spirit(ual), god(ly), divine, deity; sacred, etherial, holy; natural order, law of nature

007 藏於胸中 cáng yú xiōng zhōng

0025 藏 cáng store up, reserve, hoard; keep safe; hide away, secrete
0026 於 yú in, at, on, to, from, with regard to
0027 胸 xiōng breast, chest, as seat of affections; inner mind; 胸中 xiōng zhōng one’s mind
0028 中 zhōng in, inner, innermost, inside, among; centre, central, middle, in the midst of

008 謂之聖人 wèi zhī shèng rén

0029 謂 wèi speak to; speak about, address, say, tell of; to call, term, refer to as, to mean
0030 之 zhī to go; pronouns: this, that, these, those, him, her, it, them; demonstrative adjectives: this, that, these, those; marker of noun-phrase modification; possessive marker; marker of sentential nominalisation
0031 聖 shèng possessing wisdom, judgment, and moral excellence; profoundly wise and virtuous; sage(ly), sagacious. 聖人 shèng rén saint, sage
0032 人 rén person, human being, man, mankind, others, the other one(s)

TRANSLATIONS (VR1-4)

I

The vital essence of all things:
It is this that brings them to life.
It generates the five grains below
And becomes the constellated stars above.
When flowing amid the heavens and the earth
We call it ghostly and numinous.
When stored within the chests of human beings,
We call them sages.—Harold D. Roth 1999

I

It is the essence of things
That gives life to them.
Below, it gives birth to the five grains;
Above, it is the ranks of stars.
Flowing between heaven and earth:
We call these ghosts and spirits.
Stored within the breast:
We call these sages.—Robert Eno 2005

I

Always: the essence of creatures –
This then makes them live.
Below, it gives birth to the five grains;
Above, it acts to arrange the stars.
When it flows in the space between heaven and earth
We call them ghosts and spirits.
When it collects in the center of the breast of people,
We call them sages.—Bruce R. Linnell 2011

I

It is invariably the essence of things
That gives them life.
Below, it gives birth to the five grains;
Above, it aligns the stars.
Circulating between Heaven and Earth,
We call them ghosts and spirits;
Collected within the bosom,
We call them sages.—Dan G. Reid 2018

NOTE: The translation made by Harold D. Roth can be easy found online but it is left unclear: Can I or cannot use it for educational purpose part by part (as well as translation from the digital edition of Dan G. Reid). As far as I can see, translation made by Robert Eno is copyright-free. The translation made by Bruce R. Linnell was placed online under a Creative Commons license and I hope it will be useful for those who feel difficulty to understand Classical Chinese instantly. Please remember, my main goal is to make TRADITIONAL CHINESE writing and Pinyin tone pronunciation notes closer to those students who want enjoy the VOICE OF HISTORY AND WISDOM BEHIND CLASSICAL CHINESE TEXT without comments and translations.

INTRODUCTION: 內業 Nèiyè (Inner Cultivation), or HUMANKIND IS ALMOST READY IN 2018

As far as I can see, humanity is not ready yet to print out this text in Classical Chinese (as it was not ready a few years ago) and Pinyin with tones with two or three translations into English with unique numeration of every line under one cover. Probably, editors and readers will be inspired to do it soon. So people just keep printing ancient Chinese texts without tones and sometimes without Pinyin, and electronic dictionaries built inside reading apps sometimes work, work partially from time to time, or do not work on a whim. At least, Chinese characters don’t look like foreigners in the white frames on the display. But four (!) translations here made by professionals (1999, 2005, 2011, and 2018) prove that readiness is somewhere close to me, and I am going to bring it closer to you too. Readers, read the blog.

This fresh project 2018 will include original Classical Chinese text 內業 Nèiyè (Inner Cultivation) chapter by chapter with all emendations made by Harold D. Roth and glossary pages will follow A Student’s Dictionary of Classical and Medieval Chinese, Paul W. Kroll, 2015.

Principal books jam session

1 Original Tao: Inward Training (Nei-yeh) And The Foundations of Taoist Mysticism by Harold D. Roth, Columbia University Press, 1999, 276 pages paper book (Inward Training pp. 46-97: Traditional Chinese with line numeration and English translation, no Pinyin and tones, ancient pronunciation to show last character in the line only).

2 Translation by Robert Eno (2005) was googled and rewritten following chapters from Harold D. Roth edition.

3 Translation by Bruce R. Linnell (2011) was googled and rewritten following chapters from Harold D. Roth edition.

4 The Thread of Dao: Unraveling Early Daoist Oral Traditions in Guan Zi’s Purifying the Heart-Mind (Bai Xin), Art of the Heart-Mind (Xin Shu), and Internal Cultivation (Nei Ye) 2018, Center Ring Publishing, Montreal, QC, Canada. Electronic book. Translation, annotations, and commentary by Dan G. Reid.

5 Outline of Classical Chinese Grammar by Edwin G. Pulleyblank, UBC Press, Vancouver, Canada, 1995. Fifteen chapters from Introduction and Some Basic Principles of Classical Chinese Syntax to Complex Sentences, 194 pages.

6 Du’s Handbook of Classical Chinese Grammar (An Introduction to Classical Chinese Grammar) Contributors: Archie Barns, Don Starr, and Graham Ormerod, 2009, Great Britain. Absolutely wonderful reference book including small dictionary for grammar section (1,189 characters and five short stories with grammar explanation for beginners).

7 A Student’s Dictionary of Classical and Medieval Chinese by Paul W. Crawl, BRILL Leiden/Boston edition 2015, 714 pages: that was nice reading page by page during some months in winter and making synopsis of entries you liked the best of all, duh!

THREE CYCLES OF ENERGY IN TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE (TCM)

(Traditional Chinese with tone, Latin, English, and an amount of acupoints, total 618)

The ancients texts Neiye and Xingqi give us cosmogonical foundation basics, but modern interpretation looks much more complicated. The good news is it is become common terms now for all people who prefer to follow traditional Chinese medicine or martial arts teachings and practices no matter where they live now. Welcome to the Computer Age:)

FIRST CYCLE ENERGY (3-6) 3 am — 11 am

太 陰 — 陽 明 tài yīn — yáng míng

3 yín  hǔ tiger 3-5 am The 5th Watch

手太 陰 經  shǒu tài yīn jīng

Cardinalis pulmonalis yin maioris manus

The Lung Meridian, 11.

4 mǎo  tù rabbit 5-7 am Dōng, N

手陽 明 經  shǒu yáng míng jīng

Cardinalis intestini crassi splendoris yang manus

The Large Intestine Meridian, 20.

5 chén  lóng dragon 7-9 am

腿 陽 明 經   tuǐ yáng míng jīng

Cardinalis stomachi splendoris yang pedis

The Stomach Meridian, 45.

6 sì  shé snake 9-11 am

腿太 陰 經 tuǐ tài yīn jīng

Cardinalis lienalis yin maioris pedis

The Spleen Meridian, 21.

SECOND CYCLE ENERGY (7-10) 11 am — 7 pm

少 陰 –太 陽 shǎo yīn — tài yáng

7 wǔ  mǎ horse 11 am – 1 pm Nán, S

手少 陰 經 shǒu shǎo yīn jīng

Cardinalis cardialis yin minoris manus

The Heart Meridian, 9.

8 wèi yáng ram 1-3 pm

手太陽 經 shǒu tài yáng jīng

Cardinalis intestini tenuis yang maioris manus

The Small Intestine Meridian, 19.

9 shēn  hóu monkey 3-5 pm

腿太陽 經 tuǐ tài yáng jīng

Cardinalis vesicalis yang maioris pedis

The Bladder Meridian, 67.

10 yǒu  jī rooster 5-7 pm Qiū, W

腿少 陰 經 tuǐ shǎo yīn jīng

Cardinalis renalis yin minoris pedis

The Kidney Meridian, 27.

THIRD CYCLE ENERGY (11-12-1-2) 7 pm — 3 am

厥 陰 — 少陽 jué yīn — shǎo yáng

11 xū  gǒu dog 7-9 pm   The 1st Watch

手厥 陰 經  shǒu jué yīn jīng

Cardinalis pericardialis yin flectentis manus

The Pericardium Meridian, 9.

12 hài  zhū hog 9-11 pm         The 2nd Watch

手少陽 經  shǒu shǎo yáng jīng

Cardinalis tricalorii yang minoris manus

The Triple Heater Meridian, 23.

1 zǐ  shǔ rat   11 pm-1 am   The 3rd Watch, Běi, N

腿少陽 經 tuǐ shǎo yáng jīng

Cardinalis fellea yang minoris pedis

The Gallbladder Meridian, 44.

2 chǒu  niú bull 1-3 am   The 4th Watch

腿厥 陰 經 tuǐ jué yīn jīng

Cardinalis hepatica yin flectentis pedis

The Liver Meridian, 14.

Xing Qi English Translation 1999

In: Original Tao: Inward Training (Nei-yeh) and the Foundation of Taoist Mysticism by Harold D. Roth, 1999

01   To circulate the vital breath:

02   Swallow it and it will collect.

03   When it is collected, it will expand.

04   When it expends, it will descend.

05   When it descends, it will be become stable.

06   When it is stable, it will be firm.

07   When it is firm, it will sprout.

08   When it sprouts, it will grow.

09   When it grows, it will return.

10   When it returns, it will become heavenly.

11   The heavenly dynamism is revealed in the ascending [of the breath];

12   The earthly dynamism is revealed in the descending [of the breath].

13   Follow this and you will live;

14   Oppose it and you will die.

Xing Qi Traditional Chinese Text With English Vocabulary

01 行氣 xíngqì

02 吞則蓄 tūn zé xù

03 蓄則伸 xù zé shēn

04 伸則下 shēn zé xià

05 下則定 xià zé dìng

06 定則固 dìng zé gù

07 固則萌 gù zé méng

08 萌則長 méng zé cháng

09 長則復 cháng zé fù

10 復則天 fù zé tiān

11 天機舂在上 tiān jī chōng zài shàng

12 地機舂在下 dì jī chōng zài xià

13 順則生 shùn zé shēng

14 逆則死 nì zé sĭ

Xing Qi Different Characters (1-20)

01 xíng (1) walk, move, travel, about to, soon, will, behavior 

02 氣 qì (1) vital energy, air, vapor

03 吞 tūn to swallow, to take (1)

04 則 zé (11) rule, standard, norm, example, imitate, follow, linking statements: then, already, turned out that, but …

05 蓄 xù to store up, to grow (e.g. a beard), to entertain (ideas) (2)

06 伸 shēn extend, stretch out, open up; trust (2)

07 下 xià (3) postpos.: under, below, lower, get down from, go down

08 定 dìng to set, settled, to fix, fixed,  to determine, to decide, to order, forehead, name of a star (2)

09 固 gù hard, strong, solid, sure, assuredly, undoubtedly, of course, indeed, admittedly (2)

10 méng people, sprout, bud (2)

11 cháng (2) long, height, (read zhăng = grow, increase, excel)

12 復 fù (2) again, return, repeat

13 天 tiān (2) sky, heaven, nature, god, divine

14 機 jī changes, motion, machine, secret, engine, opportunity, intention, aircraft, pivot, crucial point, flexible (quick-witted), organic (2)

15 舂 chōng to pound (grain), beat (2)

16 在 zài (2) be at, rest with, consist in, be present, be alive

17 上 shàng (1) postpos.: on, above, upper, ascend, go up, supreme

18 地 dì (1) earth, round

19 順 shùn to obey, to follow, to arrange, to make reasonable, along, favorable (1)

20 nì disobey, rebel, oppose, contrary, opposite, backwards, to go against, to betray, accord with (1)

Xing Qi English Translation 1997

One of the first Xing Qi English translation can be found in the book: Early Chinese Medical Literature by Donald Harper, 1997

“Swallow, then it travels; traveling, it extends; extending, it descends; descending, it stabilizes; stabilizing, it solidifies; solidifying, it sprouts; sprouting, it grows; growing, it returns; returning, it is heaven. Heaven—its root is above; earth—its root is below. Follow the pattern and live; go against it and die.”

To compare parallel translations easier, I put the numbers of lines according to the translation made by Harold D. Roth in his book Original Tao: Inward Training (Nei-yeh) and the Foundation of Taoist Mysticism by Harold D. Roth, 1999

01   xing qi [Harper thinks this is a title and he begins his translation from the second line 吞則蓄 tūn zé xù]

02   Swallow, then it travels;

03   traveling, it extends;

04   extending, it descends;

05   descending, it stabilizes;

06   stabilizing, it solidifies;

07   solidifying, it sprouts;

08   sprouting, it grows;

09   growing, it returns;

10   returning, it is heaven.

11   Heaven—its root is above;

12   earth—its root is below.

13   Follow the pattern and live;

14   go against it and die.

I would like to add a couple of paragraphs from the point of view of D. Harper to make some details clear.

“The verbs that identify the stages of cultivation are not obscure words (travel, extend, descend, etc.), but neither is it obvious exactly how the technique is excited. Like the ’Neiye’ and the Laozi, the text is an example of verse meant for recitation by initiates who would have received fuller knowledge of its meaning either orally or in ancillary texts. The verse itself is the verbal distillation of the technique, each verb an icon of the act of circulating vapor.”

“The true focus of the Mawangdui and Zhangjiashan macrobiotic hygiene texts is on techniques. Unlike the ’Neiye,’ which is theoretical exposition on the physiology of the sage, the excavated texts are meant to teach how to do it—whether it be breath cultivation, exercise, sexual  cultivation, or dietetics. Prior to their discovery, the only ancient example of a macrobiotic technique was a rhymed inscription on a dodecagonal block of jade bearing the title xingqi 行氣 (To circulate vapor). The artifact is thought to be late Warring States (perhaps late fourth or early third century B.C.). The technique is presented in nine trisyllabic phrases which describe the stages of breath cultivation from first swallowing the vapor to completion; four explanatory phrases concludes the text.”

I have to say, that running along the cold or hot mountain’s dirty road and keeping in mind all those transformations between the earth and heaven like a smart human being that’s probably the best hours in my life now.