內業 Nèiyè (Inner Cultivation) All Characters of Parts 1-3 in ABC order and Digraphs

Total number of characters in parts 01-03 to read is 155, different characters are 90 (27+38+25).


安 ān firmly in place; stable, secure; safe; unworried, settled, calm


彼 bĭ that, those, the other, there
畢 bì finish, bring to an end; all of, to the last one; completely
必 bì adv necessarily, certainly; inevitably, invariably
不 bù generic pre-verbal negative, not; negative prefix; 不可 bù kĕ cannot, should not, must not


藏 cáng store up, reserve, hoard; keep safe; hide away, secrete
此 cĭ this, these, here
成 chéng complete, accomplish, achieve; effect(ive); fulfil, realise; whole(ness), make whole, to form, shape; become, develop (to)
充 chōng fill, filled; whole, complete, abundant; fit in, fit with, accord with
出 chū go or come out (from), come or go forth; issue (from), emerge(nt); go or reach beyond; exceed, surpass


德 dé innate (inner) power, potency, efficacy; sometimes thought of as projection of the 道 Dao (Way) in the sensible world; traditionally translated as ‘virtue,’ but having no religious overtones—Kroll, 2015.
得 dé obtain, get, gain, attain(ment), acquire(ment); have control of, possess
登 dēng climb, ascend, rise; (sur)mount
地 dì earth, soil, as land


而 ér verbal-phrase conjunction, occurs between two verbal-phrases subordinating the former to the latter: and, and then, and yet, yet (not), but, but (not), as well as; indicates causal relation; indicates change of state; indicates contrast


凡 fán in general, overall, in every case of, whenever, whatever, whoever, whichever, all of
煩 fán vex(atious), irk(some), annoy(ance), irritate, peeve; trouble(some), bother(some); confusingly or unnecessarily many, overmuch; overcomplicated, loaded with trivia
反 făn turn over, invert, turn upward; turn back, reverse, go back, return, turn round; contrary, opposite, oppose; look inside, introspection


杲 găo glimmer, glint, break into light, like the just-rising sun; brightening; ascend in the distance
穀 gŭ grain, cereal, common food crops
故 gù reason, cause, purpose; therefore, assuredly, affirmedly, certainly, surely
鬼 guĭ returning spirit of the dead, revenant, ghost, specter; often associated with the carnal-soul (魄 pò) that is tied to the earth; 鬼神 guĭ shén gods and demons (Roth translates it like ‘ghostly and numinous’, others follow ‘ghosts and spirits’)


海 hăi sea, ocean; marine, maritime
和 hé harmony, bring into harmony; harmonious, of sound; in harmony with, accordant; euphonious
乎 hū interrogative or exclamatory final particle
呼 hū to call, to cry, to shout, to breath out, to exhale, breath sigh


濟 jì cross a river; arrive at a goal, succeed, achieve(ment); help, aid, assist
間 jiān NB This graph a medieval development of 閒 xián, interstice of space, interval, space between, in between, among, in the midst of
精 jīng essence; purest, most highly concentrated element; germinal essence, life-germ contained in the Dao; the energy that nourishes the human body and is esp. attached to sexuality (semen, menstrual fluid); seminal; vital; seed(ling)
敬 jìng respect(ful), revere(nce), regard with honor; serious; solemn, grave; reflective, somber


可 kĕ possible, permissible, feasible; allow(able), admit; may, can


樂 lè merry, blithe; delighted; gleeful; (en)joy(ment); take pleasure in, delight in
力 lì strength, power(ful); force(ful); ability, potency; vigour(ous), strenuous
利 lì profit(able), benefit; gain(ful); successful, favourable; swift, rapid
列 liè to array, arrange in ranks or sequence; sign up, align(meant); set out; enlist(meant). 列星 liè xīng star alignment (in astrology)
流 liú flow, drift, course, glide, run, stream; circulate, distribute, spread
亂 luàn disorder(ly), disarray; chaos; trouble(d), confuse(d); rebel, revolt



乃 năi then, only then; with that, given that, thereupon; so, thus
淖 nào temperate, gentle; be in accord
能 néng capacity, (cap)ability; faculty, prowess; capable of, able to
寧 níng peaceful, tranquil, irenic; pacify, calm
怒 nù angry, infuriated, furious; wrath(ful), wroth; tense, intense


其 qí his, her, their, its, one’s; the, this, that, such, it (refers to something preceding it)
齊 qí ready, complete; altogether; act in concert; bring into line; compose, arrange, array
屺   qǐ hill or mountain denuded of vegetation, bare mound
氣 qì vital breath, pneuma, energising breath, life-force, material force. The force characterized by a blending of yin and yang, that animates each living creature and also runs through the inanimate universe; regarded as hybrid or dual in nature, described as neither just matter nor just energy, or rather as matter-energy; 氣 qì is the basic constituent element of the universe—Kroll, 2015.
情 qíng the actual situation; properties; matters; circumstance(s)
去 qù depart (from), go away (from), leave, go off



人 rén person, human being, man, mankind, others, the other one(s)
如 rú follow, defer to, comply with, according to, in light of; this, such a/an; in this way, so, such as; if
入 rù enter, pass into, go in


上 shàng on top, on high, above, higher, up(ward)
神 shén spirit(ual), god(ly), divine, deity; sacred, etherial, holy; natural order, law of nature
生 shēng life; live, be alive, exist; emerge, come forth, appear; to grow, develop
聲 shēng sound, noise; voice
聖 shèng possessing wisdom, judgment, and moral excellence; profoundly wise and virtuous; sage(ly), sagacious. 聖人 shèng rén saint, sage
失 shī lose, forfeit, lacking in, not careful about, neglectful of; wrongly done; error, slip
是 shì this, that, these, those; he, they, any, any such; affirm, assert, prove out, prove to be so; true, right; what is this way, as it is supposed to be; 是故 shì gù therefore, so, and so, for this reason, on this account
守 shŏu keep safe, safeguard; to ward, keep ward; hold to, keep to; abide by, observe
所 suŏ place, spot, site, location; 所以 suŏyĭ that which is used, wherewithal, means


天   tiān   the sky, the heavens, celestial; 天地 tiān dì heaven and earth, world


萬 wàn ten thousand, myriad; countless, innumerable; 萬物 wàn wù the myriad phenomena (of the world); all living things
為 wéi do; make, contrive; effect; carry out
謂   wèi   to speak, to say, to name, to designate, to tell, to call, be called, meaning, sense
五 wŭ numeral five; fifth. 五穀 wŭ gŭ five crops (millet, sesame, soya beans, barley or wheat, rice or other variants), all crops, all grains
勿 wù prohibitive negative: do not
物 wù things; matters, material things; phenomena; living beings


喜 xĭ delight in, joy(ful), happiness; light-hearted(ness), glad(ness), mirth(ful)
下 xià below, low(er), under, at the bottom; down(ward), go down, decline, to go down, fall
心 xīn the heart, as the centre of intellectual and emotional activity
星 xīng star; astral, star-like
形 xíng outward form, appearance, shape; structure, contour, outline
胸 xiōng breast, chest, as seat of affections; inner mind; 胸中 xiōng zhōng one’s mind


杳 yăo indistinct, obscure; vague, blurred; impenetrable, unfathomable
也 yĕ classical final particle of strong affirmation or identity; marking sentence-initial noun-phrases as topics; final particle in verbal sentences marking continuative aspect
以 yĭ to use, take (up); use as a tool, instrument, or means
意 yì thought, idea; mentation; intent(ion), purpose
迎 yíng receive, accept; welcome, greet; acquiesce to, comply with
盈 yíng plentitude, plenteous; full, abundant, replete; full to excess, overfull
憂 yōu anxious, concerned over; fretful; trouble by, burdened with care; grief
於   yú   in, at, on, to, from, with regard to; than
欲 yù want(s), desire(s); craving; desiderate
淵 yuān vortex, gyre; whirlpool, maelstrom; abyss, seemingly bottomless gulf; deep, profound; unplumbable, immeasurable


在 zài be located at, situated; rest in, reside in, lie in; consist in depend on; be present; exist, live; at, in, on
則 zé standard, norm, precept; rule, example; usual, follow a law; VB-phrase conjunction, occurs between two VB-phrases subordinating the former to the latter, specifically with the meaning ‘if VB-phrase 1, then VB-phrase 2’
之 zhī to go; pronouns: this, that, these, those, him, her, it, them; demonstrative adjectives: this, that, these, those; marker of noun-phrase modification; possessive marker; marker of sentential nominalisation
止 zhĭ stop, halt, end; cease, cessation; only, merely, just
智 zhì wisdom, knowledge; cognition, intelligence; sentence; insight, gnosis
中 zhōng in, inner, innermost, inside, among; centre, central, middle, in the midst of
自 zì for oneself, of oneself, personally; instinctively, naturally, freely, spontaneously
崒   zú jut up; rearing ruggedly



五穀 wŭ gŭ five crops (millet, sesame, soya beans, barley or wheat, rice or other variants), all crops, all grains
列星 liè xīng star alignment (in astrology)
天地 tiān dì heaven and earth, world
鬼神 guĭ shén gods and demons (Roth translates it like ‘ghostly and numinous’, others follow ‘ghosts and spirits’)
聖人 shèng rén saint, sage
胸中 xiōng zhōng one’s mind


不可 bù kĕ cannot, should not, must not
是故 shì gù therefore, so, and so, for this reason, on this account
萬物 wàn wù the myriad phenomena (of the world); all living things


所以 suŏ yĭ that which is used, wherewithal, means


My guess is the clearing techniques should be absolutely popular now (not so popular like popularity itself though) but giving a kind of refreshment and a new start after swimming in the mass media 24/7 streaming. Some quotations from the second volume of encyclopedia look helpful.

“The idea of “nourishing” (yang) is prominent in Chinese thought: one can nourish life (yăngshēng 養生), the inner nature (yăngxìng 養性), the body (yăngxíng 養形), the whole person (yăngshēn 養身), the will (yăngzhì 養志), and the mind (yăngxīn 養心). The term yăngshēng 養生 designates techniques based on the essence, the inner or outer breath, and the spiritual force (jing, qi, shen); these techniques are grounded on physiological, psychological, and behavioral principles and include gymnastics (dăoyĭn 導引), massage, breathing (fuqi, xingqi), sexual hygiene (fángzhōng shū 房中書), diets (bigu), healing, meditation and visualization, and rules of daily behavior.”

“The term is first mentioned in Zhuangzi 3, a chapter entitled “Mastering in Nourishing Life” (“Yăngshēng zhŭ” 養生主).”–Catherine Despeux.

“The yangsheng practices flourished during the Han period. They are described in several Mawandui manuscripts dating to about 200 BCE, including the Hé yīnyáng 合陰陽 (Joining Yīn and Yáng), the Tiānxià zhìdào tán 天下至道談 (Discourse on the Ultimate Way Under Heaven), the Yăngshēng fāng 養生方 (Recipes for Nourishing Life), the Shíwèn 十問 (Ten Questions), and the Quègŭ shíqì 卻穀食氣 (Refraining from Cereals and Ingesting Breath; see translations in Harper 1998). These manuscripts give importance to sexual hygiene and to the ingestion of breath (see fuqi).”

“One of the most influential works of the time, preserved only in fragments, is the Yangsheng yaoji (Essentials of Nourishing Life) of Zhāng Zhàn 張湛 (early fourth century).”

“In the twentieth century, yăngshēng 養生 evolved into the modern science of wèishēng 衛生 (hygiene) on the one hand, and into qìgōng 氣功 on the other.”—Catherine Despeux.

Frankly, I don’t like the idea of recent separation of yăngshēng into wèishēng and qìgōng at all, I do would prefer to read the chapter “Mastering in Nourishing Life” (Yăngshēng zhŭ 養生主) in Zhuangzi soon after it has been done by the ancient author.