內業 Nèiyè (Inner Cultivation) Part 3 of 26

III

023   01   凡心之 形 fán xīn zhī xíng
024   02   自充自盈  zì chōng zì yíng
025   03   自生自成  zì shēng zì chéng

026   04   其所以失之 qí suŏ yĭ shī zhī
027   05   必以憂樂喜怒欲利  bì yĭ yōu lè xĭ nù yù lì
028   06   能去憂樂喜怒欲利  néng qù yōu lè xĭ nù yù lì
029   07   心乃反齊  xīn năi făn qí

030   08   彼心之情  bĭ xīn zhī qíng
031   09   利安以寧   lì ān yĭ níng
032   10   勿煩勿亂  wù fán wù luàn
033   11   和乃自成  hé năi zì chéng

III
023 01 凡心之刑 fán xīn zhī xíng
0103 凡 fán in general, overall, in every case of, whenever, whatever, whoever, whichever, all of
0104 心 xīn the heart, as the centre of intellectual and emotional activity
0105 之 zhī to go; pronouns: this, that, these, those, him, her, it, them; demonstrative adjectives: this, that, these, those; marker of noun-phrase modification; possessive marker; marker of sentential nominalisation
0106 形 xíng outward form, appearance, shape; structure, contour, outline

024 02 自充自盈 zì chōng zì yíng
0107 自 zì for oneself, of oneself, personally; instinctively, naturally, freely, spontaneously
0108 充 chōng fill, filled; whole, complete, abundant; fit in, fit with, accord with
0109 自 zì for oneself, of oneself, personally; instinctively, naturally, freely, spontaneously
0110 盈 yíng plentitude, plenteous; full, abundant, replete; full to excess, overfull

025 03 自生自成 zì shēng zì chéng

0111 自 zì for oneself, of oneself, personally; instinctively, naturally, freely, spontaneously
0112 生   shēng  life; live, be alive, exist; emerge, come forth, appear; to grow, develop
0113 自 zì for oneself, of oneself, personally; instinctively, naturally, freely, spontaneously
0114 成  chéng   complete, accomplish, achieve; effect(ive); fulfil, realise; whole(ness), make whole, to form, shape; become, develop (to)

026 04 其所以失之 qí suŏ yĭ shī zhī
0115 其 qí his, her, their, its, one’s; the, this, that, such, it (refers to something preceding it)
0116 所 suŏ place, spot, site, location; 所以 suŏyĭ that which is used, wherewithal, means
0117 以 yĭ to use, take (up); use as a tool, instrument, or means
0118 失 shī lose, forfeit, lacking in, not careful about, neglectful of; wrongly done; error, slip
0119 之 zhī to go; pronouns: this, that, these, those, him, her, it, them; demonstrative adjectives: this, that, these, those; marker of noun-phrase modification; possessive marker; marker of sentential nominalisation

027 05 必以憂樂喜怒欲利 bì yĭ yōu lè xĭ nù yù lì

0120 必 bì adv necessarily, certainly; inevitably, invariably
0121 以 yĭ to use, take (up); use as a tool, instrument, or means
0122 憂 yōu anxious, concerned over; fretful; trouble by, burdened with care; grief
0123 樂 lè merry, blithe; delighted; gleeful; (en)joy(ment); take pleasure in, delight in
0124 喜 xĭ delight in, joy(ful), happiness; light-hearted(ness), glad(ness), mirth(ful)
0125 怒 nù angry, infuriated, furious; wrath(ful), wroth; tense, intense
0126 欲 yù want(s), desire(s); craving; desiderate
0127 利 lì profit(able), benefit; gain(ful); successful, favourable; swift, rapid

028 06 能去憂樂喜怒欲利 néng qù yōu lè xĭ nù yù lì
0128 能 néng capacity, (cap)ability; faculty, prowess; capable of, able to
0129 去 qù depart (from), go away (from), leave, go off
0130 憂 yōu anxious, concerned over; fretful; trouble by, burdened with care; grief
0131 樂 lè merry, blithe; delighted; gleeful; (en)joy(ment); take pleasure in, delight in
0132 喜 xĭ delight in, joy(ful), happiness; light-hearted(ness), glad(ness), mirth(ful)
0133 怒 nù angry, infuriated, furious; wrath(ful), wroth; tense, intense
0134 欲 yù want(s), desire(s); craving; desiderate
0135 利 lì profit(able), benefit; gain(ful); successful, favourable; swift, rapid

029 07 心乃反齊 xīn năi făn qí
0136 心 xīn the heart, as the centre of intellectual and emotional activity
0137 乃 năi then, only then; with that, given that, thereupon; so, thus
0138 反 făn turn over, invert, turn upward; turn back, reverse, go back, return, turn round; contrary, opposite, oppose; look inside, introspection
0139 齊 qí ready, complete; altogether; act in concert; bring into line; compose, arrange, array

030 08 彼心之情 bĭ xīn zhī qíng
0140 彼 bĭ that, those, the other, there
0141 心 xīn the heart, as the centre of intellectual and emotional activity
0142 之 zhī to go; pronouns: this, that, these, those, him, her, it, them; demonstrative adjectives: this, that, these, those; marker of noun-phrase modification; possessive marker; marker of sentential nominalisation
0143 情 qíng the actual situation; properties; matters; circumstance(s)

031 09 利安以寧 lì ān yĭ níng
0144 利 lì profit(able), benefit; gain(ful); successful, favourable; swift, rapid
0145 安 ān firmly in place; stable, secure; safe; unworried, settled, calm
0146 以 yĭ to use, take (up); use as a tool, instrument, or means
0147 寧 níng peaceful, tranquil, irenic; pacify, calm

032 10 勿煩勿亂 wù fán wù luàn
0148 勿 wù prohibitive negative: do not
0149 煩 fán vex(atious), irk(some), annoy(ance), irritate, peeve; trouble(some), bother(some); confusingly or unnecessarily many, overmuch; overcomplicated, loaded with trivia
0150 勿 wù prohibitive negative: do not
0151 亂 luàn disorder(ly), disarray; chaos; trouble(d), confuse(d); rebel, revolt

033 11 和乃自成 hé năi zì chéng
0152 和 hé harmony, bring into harmony; harmonious, of sound; in harmony with, accordant; euphonious
0153 乃 năi then, only then; with that, given that, thereupon; so, thus
0154 自 zì for oneself, of oneself, personally; instinctively, naturally, freely, spontaneously
0155 成  chéng   complete, accomplish, achieve; effect(ive); fulfil, realise; whole(ness), make whole, to form, shape; become, develop (to)

TRANSLATIONS

Three

All the forms of the mind
Are naturally infused and filled with it [the vital essence],
Are naturally generated and developed [because of] it.

It is lost
Inevitably because of sorrow, happiness, joy, anger, desire, and profit-seeking.
If you are able to cast off sorrow, happiness, joy, anger, desire and profit-seeking,
Your mind will just revert to equanimity.

The true condition of the mind
Is that it finds calmness beneficial and, by it, attains repose.
Do not disturb it, do not disrupt it
And harmony will naturally develop.

(Translated by Harold D. Roth, 1999)

Three

The form of the heart is
Spontaneously full and replete,
Spontaneously born and complete.

It loses this form through
care and joy, pleasure and anger, desire and profit-seeking.
If are able to rid itself of
care and joy, pleasure and anger, desire and profit-seeking,
the heart returns to completion.

The natural feelings of the heart cleave to rest and calm;
Don’t trouble them, don’t derange them,
and harmony will spontaneously be perfect.

(Translated by Robert Eno, 2005)

Three

Always: the form of the heart/mind is
Naturally full, naturally overflowing,
Naturally born, naturally complete.

The reason that you lose it
Is certainly due to worries and happiness, love and anger, desire for profit.
If you can leave behind worries and happiness, love and anger, desire for profit,
Your heart/mind then returns [to its original nature] successfully.

The nature of that heart/mind
Benefits from calmness and the tranquility that comes from it.
Do not be troubled, do not be confused,
And harmony is then naturally achieved.

(Translated by Bruce R. Linnell, 2011)

Three

Invariably, the heart-mind’s decisions
Naturally occupy it, naturally fill it.
They spontaneously arise, and spontaneously ripen.

They can become wayward
As a result of sorrow, pleasure, euphoria, anger, desire, and avarice.
If you can abandon sorrow, pleasure, euphoria, anger, desire, and avarice,
The heart will return back to the shore (of calm and stability).

It is the nature of the heart and mind
To benefit from tranquility and relaxation.
Do not agitate it, do not disturb it,
And harmony will naturally perfect it.

(Translated by Dan G. Reid, 2018)

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ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TAOISM (ONE NOTE ON ONE): Shŏuyī 守一 ‘guarding the One’

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Shŏuyī 守一 ‘guarding the One’, ‘maintaining Oneness’

“The term shŏuyī (守一), which appears in Taoist literature from an early period, indicates a form of concentrative meditation that focuses all attention upon one point or god in the body. The purpose of this practice is to attain total absorption in the object and thus perceive the oneness of being.” — Livia Kohn, and it sounds wonderful, especially ‘all attention upon one point,’ and the best point which comes to the mind first is ‘breathing’.

Another proof for the usefulness of such kind of meditation is another quotation: “The shift from visualization to mental tranquility continues in the Song dynasty (960-1279), where shŏuyī (守一) appears as a basic exercise in the texts of inner alchemy (neidan), whose purpose is to protect the center of life within and thus allow the transformation of bodily energies into pure spirit and Dao. In all cases, however, the term indicates one-pointedness of mind, which focuses on a single object of meditation.”— L. Kohn, one of my favorite sinologists.

And guess, what? Another quotation for the first two proves for the previous quotation (Encyclopedia of Taoism, Routledge edition) is the whole chapter of Yoga Sūtra by Patañjali: ‘samādhi pāda’. God bless all people practicing yoga, they deserve it, especially after reading and getting the ‘oneness’ with the whole corpus of sutras.

Of course, I could suggest now a small, collective meditation on these two cultural achievements of China and India to “guard the One,” or “to maintain Oneness” but it will look like a little bit cheap trick. What doesn’t look cheap definitely is your private experience (as well as mine) of meditation on, yes, ‘breathing technique’. For instance, when I have discovered first time that my breathing wave inside my lungs strongly resembles the feeling inside the palms in the famous exercise (you keep your palms ‘face-to-face’ for some time and when you begin move them slowly closing the space,  you feel how air between the palms turns into sort of a spring, or a balloon), and that was so amazing, and I keep the feeling of this air spring every time I meet my yoga mat-à-mat again and again. By the way, you should  really be in the state of deep meditation and somehow 3-5 breathings per minute help to achieve this goal.

In general, shŏuyī (守一 ‘guarding the One’) is what we, linguists, philologists, sinologists, psychologists, and their crazy fans call ‘pure joy.’

ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TAOISM: Guān 觀 OBSERVATION

Livia Kohn has done a great job telling us, readers of encyclopedia, about different  kinds of ‘observation’ in different times, beginning from the fifth century with the rise of Louguan (‘Tower of Observation”) for a Taoist monastery and leading the list of terms throughout the Buddhist influence in the seventh century and later.

Zhiguan, neiguan, qiguan vs. shenguan, jiafa guan vs. shifa guan and piankong, youguan vs. wuguan and zhongdao guan, and also waiguan and yuanguan to contrast neiguan, and the ultimate technique — kongguan, or observation of emptiness. The meaning of the word ‘guan’ is ‘to look at carefully’, ‘to scrutinize’. And now we have the volumes of teachings! Why people put so much passion to make simple things so complicated!

Let’s make this picture easier to understand. My favorite list of careful observations would be printed out like this: observation any cup of coffee, green or black tea, or Japanese matcha I have made during past decades; observation sky and earth, and any tree, leaf, flower, or snow every time I leave the home; observation my dreams and daoyin exercises every night and my work every day; observation every child and adult person I can meet and talk; observation my favorite ideas, books, and authors during the whole life, and observation of the hexagrams of the Book of Changes (which is probably the best item in the whole list).

L. Kohn didn’t mention it, but the character Guān (observation) is the hexagram No 20 in the Book of Changes (I Ching).

Guan-Kuan

Well, my list doesn’t look neither shorter nor easier after mentioning 64 hexagrams especially (actually it is much longer), sorry for that 🙂

Guan-I Ching-Tung Tso-pin

Spring: earth, sky, new grass and young leaves observation time)