(Traditional Chinese with tone, Latin, English, and an amount of acupoints, total 618)

The ancients texts Neiye and Xingqi give us cosmogonical foundation basics, but modern interpretation looks much more complicated. The good news is it is become common terms now for all people who prefer to follow traditional Chinese medicine or martial arts teachings and practices no matter where they live now. Welcome to the Computer Age:)

FIRST CYCLE ENERGY (3-6) 3 am — 11 am

太 陰 — 陽 明 tài yīn — yáng míng

3 yín  hǔ tiger 3-5 am The 5th Watch

手太 陰 經  shǒu tài yīn jīng

Cardinalis pulmonalis yin maioris manus

The Lung Meridian, 11.

4 mǎo  tù rabbit 5-7 am Dōng, N

手陽 明 經  shǒu yáng míng jīng

Cardinalis intestini crassi splendoris yang manus

The Large Intestine Meridian, 20.

5 chén  lóng dragon 7-9 am

腿 陽 明 經   tuǐ yáng míng jīng

Cardinalis stomachi splendoris yang pedis

The Stomach Meridian, 45.

6 sì  shé snake 9-11 am

腿太 陰 經 tuǐ tài yīn jīng

Cardinalis lienalis yin maioris pedis

The Spleen Meridian, 21.

SECOND CYCLE ENERGY (7-10) 11 am — 7 pm

少 陰 –太 陽 shǎo yīn — tài yáng

7 wǔ  mǎ horse 11 am – 1 pm Nán, S

手少 陰 經 shǒu shǎo yīn jīng

Cardinalis cardialis yin minoris manus

The Heart Meridian, 9.

8 wèi yáng ram 1-3 pm

手太陽 經 shǒu tài yáng jīng

Cardinalis intestini tenuis yang maioris manus

The Small Intestine Meridian, 19.

9 shēn  hóu monkey 3-5 pm

腿太陽 經 tuǐ tài yáng jīng

Cardinalis vesicalis yang maioris pedis

The Bladder Meridian, 67.

10 yǒu  jī rooster 5-7 pm Qiū, W

腿少 陰 經 tuǐ shǎo yīn jīng

Cardinalis renalis yin minoris pedis

The Kidney Meridian, 27.

THIRD CYCLE ENERGY (11-12-1-2) 7 pm — 3 am

厥 陰 — 少陽 jué yīn — shǎo yáng

11 xū  gǒu dog 7-9 pm   The 1st Watch

手厥 陰 經  shǒu jué yīn jīng

Cardinalis pericardialis yin flectentis manus

The Pericardium Meridian, 9.

12 hài  zhū hog 9-11 pm         The 2nd Watch

手少陽 經  shǒu shǎo yáng jīng

Cardinalis tricalorii yang minoris manus

The Triple Heater Meridian, 23.

1 zǐ  shǔ rat   11 pm-1 am   The 3rd Watch, Běi, N

腿少陽 經 tuǐ shǎo yáng jīng

Cardinalis fellea yang minoris pedis

The Gallbladder Meridian, 44.

2 chǒu  niú bull 1-3 am   The 4th Watch

腿厥 陰 經 tuǐ jué yīn jīng

Cardinalis hepatica yin flectentis pedis

The Liver Meridian, 14.



There is three quotations from the encyclopedia entry (written by Elisabeth Hsu) I have united in one paragraph:

“Qixue refers to “breath” (qi) and “blood” (xue), which are viewed as flowing constantly through the body, being mutually transformed into one another. Qi is generally attributed with Yang aspects and xue with Yin aspects, though the terms are sometimes used interchangeably, depending on the context in which they are mentioned. In those cases qi and xue  do not designate  different entities, but different aspects of the same entity. Jing, qi, xue, and mai are all said to be aspects of qi.” It looks good enough to get all main features of qìxuè 氣血 term instantly.

The brightest example of mutual interchangeability can be found in some medical books of ancient China where the blood is called qi before the “middle burner” (zhōngjiāo 中焦, the stomach system) and there it “transforms into a red liquid.”

Of course, I completely understand that modern science is modern science and biologists have their point of view on breath and blood relationships inside our bodies but the wholeness of knowledge educated people of old times kept in their hearts is still absolutely amazing fact for me.


pneuma (breath, energy, vital force)

Well, we all know the fact that qi is not a breath, qi does not equal energy, qi is not vital force (how it can be defined in the modern biology?) but if we do some easy math and put all above terms together (breath+energy+vital force=pneuma) we shall get “qi,” and the first entry in the Encyclopedia of Taoism opening letter Q is qigong.


Qìgōng 氣功 practice of qi, efficiency of qi

About time and place of the term “qigong”  we learn from the entry written by Catherine Despeux: “Qigong is a product of the twentieth century, but is rooted in the earlier tradition. The term is mentioned in the Tang period (618-907) to designate the “practice of qi,” and in the Song period (960-1279) the “efficiency of qi.” In modern times, it has taken on a new meaning and refers not only to Nourishing Life (yangsheng) but also to martial and therapeutic techniques.”

And next follow six main branches of qigong:

  • a Taoist qigong, 
  • a Buddhist qigong, 
  • a Confucian qigong, 
  • a medical qigong, 
  • a martial qigong, and 
  • a popular qigong (including the methods of rural exorcists and sorcerers). 

Another approach gives historians a “strong qigong” (yìng qìgōng 硬氣功), incorporating martial techniques,  and a “soft qigong” (ruăn qìgōng 軟氣功).

Speaking about the “soft qigong” (ruăn qìgōng 軟氣功) we shall see:

1. Jìnggōng 靜功, or the practice of qi in rest, which traditionally was called “sitting in oblivion” (zuowang) by Taoists, “sitting in dhyana” (chánzuò 禪坐) by Buddhists, and “quiet sitting” (jìngzuò 靜坐) by Neo-Confucians. These sitting practices can be accompanied by breathing, visualization, and mental concentration. 

2. Dònggōng 動功, or the practice of qi in movement, which includes the gymnastic traditions (daoyin) of medical doctors, Taoists, and Buddhists. The induction of spontaneous movements (zìfā dònggōng 自發動功) is derived from traditional trance techniques.”

“As for the therapeutic technique of the qigong master who heals people at a distance through his energy of his hands—a method that actually revives the traditional Taoist practice of “spreading breath” (buqi)—the possible existence of an “outer energy” (wàiqì 外氣) and its efficacy have been debated at length.”—C.D.

See, classification is good enough to do a try to define your own place in the whole world picture:))

QUIZ 1 (Reading Traditional Chinese): 1—氣, 2—氣功, 3—硬氣功, 4—軟氣功, 5—靜功, 6—禪坐, 7—靜坐, 8—動功, 9—自發動功, 10—外氣.

QUIZ 2 (Translating terms from Chinese into English): 1—qì, 2—qìgōng, 3—yìng qìgōng, 4—ruăn qìgōng, 5—jìnggōng, 6—chánzuò, 7—jìngzuò, 8—dònggōng, 9—zìfā dònggōng, 10—wàiqì.

QUIZ 3 Write ten terms from the QUIZ 1 by memory.

Congratulations, it looks like you have understood totally what people are speaking about using “qigong”.